What temperature should be in the refrigerator and in the freezer: standards and norms
The refrigerator allows you to continue the life of food, enjoy their taste and get the maximum of useful substances. And in the winter you can eat like only yesterday with berries or vegetables.
However, to be able to do this, you need to know what temperature should be in the refrigerator and freezer and be able to choose the optimal mode for storage.
The reason for damage products
Forgetting to put meat or fish in the refrigerator and leaving it for a few hours under the influence of high temperatures, you can say goodbye to it - a bad smell will appear that will force you to throw the failed dish into the garbage. But why do products deteriorate faster when exposed to heat?
The main reason is the proliferation of bacteria. Due to the increase in their quantity and activity, gases, acids and other chemical compounds are released.The lion's share of waste products of microorganisms remains in the product, and a smaller amount enters the environment.
It is difficult to get rid of some odors caused by bacteria. And the supplies, where microorganisms managed to build whole “megacities”, are not recommended. It is better to forget about the money spent on food and not to neglect health.
Bacteria are on any food product. 100% to get rid of them - is unreal. However, refrigeration equipment reduces the intensity or even suspends their livelihoods.
As a result, the shelf life increases and the nutritional value of the food supply is practically not reduced. Consumers save money, preserve health and enjoy their favorite dishes.
Cooling in the main chamber
In most cases, the packaging of the goods contains information about what the optimal temperature should be in the refrigerator in order to preserve its nutritional value. To select the right shelf, you can use the equipment manual - manufacturers indicate the temperature mode of operation of a particular unit, which may differ significantly from different models.
For example, this is true for Samsung and Atlant refrigerators. The average temperature of the refrigerating chamber is in the range of 2 ºС… 5 ºС.
Areas for product placement
Refrigerators are equipped with several shelves, side compartments and 1-2 vegetable boxes. Sometimes there is another reservoir - a freshness chamber.
The latter has the lowest temperature in the tank and is used to store provisions that quickly deteriorates.
Do not forget about simple but effective rules for using a refrigerator:
- Do not place hot dishes.
- Close the door tightly.
- Place food in the refrigerator compartment in accordance with the storage areas.
Each zone of the refrigerator has the same temperature. This is wrong, since for some products the optimal indicator is close to zero, while others “freeze” at +7 ºС.
Vegetables and fruits are stored at 3 ° C ... 7 ° C. They are placed in special drawers on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Some modern models are complemented by the No Frost system.
Seafood, meat, sausage, milk, cheese belong to the group of goods that quickly deteriorate. Their environment is very favorable for the rapid reproduction of bacteria. Desired storage mode - 0 ° C ... 2 ° C.
If the refrigerator is equipped with a freshness chamber, it is better to use it. There is no - then put the products on the top shelf. Here it is advisable to place and alcoholic beverages.
Also can not be stored for a long time and other dairy products. For them, the optimal temperature is 0 ° C ... 6 ° C, which corresponds to the second or third shelf. Given the large range, read on the packaging storage conditions. At 0 ° C ... 3 ° C, semi-finished products that are going to be cooked soon and cakes should be stored.
For chicken eggs, salads with sour cream or mayonnaise, bread, soups, the optimum temperature is 3 ° C ... 6 ° C. This is the middle part of the refrigerator compartment, usually the third shelf.
The lower compartment is designed to store food at a temperature of 6 ° C ... 10 ° C, which is optimal for pickles. Place vegetables and fruits in special boxes.
The compartments on the doors are part of the refrigerator with the highest temperature. Store various sauces and juices here.
The freezer compartment can be located at the top or bottom of the unit. But in any case the rule is relevant: the farther from the freezer, the warmer.
Each food product has a special approach to storage. Consumers are afraid or simply do not know that they can change the temperature regimes.The bona fide seller will ask what exactly is most likely to be in the refrigerator and make the necessary settings.
However, with the help of a special panel, it is possible and necessary to independently set the temperature if the meat, salads and other products do not fit in the respective zones. Then pay less for electricity and be able to buy more goodies.
Food storage in the freezer
A cold room is a solution to the problem of short-term storage of food. Today - laid, tomorrow or the day after tomorrow - taken. Sometimes you need to preserve the freshness of the product not for a few days, but for a couple of weeks.
The issue of freshness is solved with the help of a freezer. She - an integral part of almost any refrigerator. May have a different volume: from 40 to 100 liters. and more. Manufacturers offer separate options for several hundred liters.
Most often in this department are stored seafood, meat, vegetables and fruits. He is also a haven for saving in the terrible heat of ice cream.
On average, the temperature in the drawers / compartments of the fridge freezer ranges from -17 ° C to -18 ° C. Depending on the filling with products, the indicator changes:
- if most of the chamber is free, then -14 ° C;
- when storing meat or when filling the freezer by more than 50%, this is -20 ° C ... -24 ° C;
- the quick freezing mode is relevant for several hours - the temperature is -30 ° C.
The freezer is equipped with special drawers or shelves. The first are available if the cold compartment is placed at the bottom of the refrigerator. And restrict others to have at the top location.
European approach to freezing
According to European standards, freezers are divided into several classes. Thanks to the latter there are different temperature regimes.Such an approach saves energy, reduces the level of refrigerator wear, and prevents deterioration in the quality of products.
If you freeze some foods, they will become unusable. For example, the recommended storage temperature of mayonnaise is 0 ºС ... + 18 ºС. Feel free to put it on any shelf or even side compartment of the refrigerator.
Storage conditions for margarine are significantly different. At a temperature of +11 ºС ... + 15 ºС it is edible for 30-15 days, at + 5 ºС ... ºС —75-45 days, at -10 ºС… -20 ºС - 60-90 days.
Margarine in the freezer is 6 times longer than in the freezer. If you have purchased a lot of this product, store it at low temperatures. European laboratories conducted a similar analysis, taking into account dozens of other products. They created universal designations for ordinary consumers.
On the temperature control panels manufactured in accordance with European standards of cold stores, you will find the following notation:
- no asterisk - a few degrees below zero Celsius;
- 1 asterisk - -6 ºС;
- 2 stars - -12 ºС;
- 3 stars - -18 ºС;
- 4 stars - also -18 ºС, but for another group of devices.
The lower the temperature in the refrigerator freezer, the more electricity it consumes. The cost of devices with such regulation is somewhat higher. But the panel allows you to reduce energy costs.
Meat storage rules
Of course, buying margarine in reserve is a dubious saving. And even if one or two packs of a product get spoiled - a small problem. But buying a few kilograms of meat in 2-3 weeks before the New Year is an opportunity not to become a victim of pre-holiday price hikes.
The dependence of the duration of storage of meat on temperature is as follows.
- Fresh meat at -14 ºС… -18 ºС - 5-6 months.
- Fresh meat at -8 ºС… -12 ºС - week.
- Products from meat at -18 ºС… -22 ºС - 3 months.
It seems that the difference of a few degrees Celsius is not so much. However, the shelf life may change at once several times. Therefore, there is a choice: to pay a little more for electricity or, in the case of not enough low temperature, to throw away the meat.
It is known from the lessons of school physics that thermal insulation is provided by the flow of energy. But the potential is formed as a result of temperature drops. Therefore, in parallel with the "cooling" in the freezer, electricity costs are rising.
Features storage of chicken eggs
As the temperature in the freezer decreases, so does the shelf life of most products. But there are exceptions.
For example, chicken eggs do not spoil for a long time under the influence of small negative temperatures. At 0 ºС ... -2 ºС in the freezer, they will be suitable for up to 3 months. A good way to forget about rotten eggs, is not it?
What happens if the temperature drops to at least -3 ºС… -5 ºС? The fetus dies even at -4 ºС. As a result, the density of yolk and protein will decrease.Since the coefficient of temperature embossing of liquids is greater than that of solids, the shell will burst.
It is widely believed that chicken eggs do not spoil for 2-3 weeks at room temperature. But it is worth considering the norms of GOST 51121. The document notes that at 0 ºС… + 20 ºС should be stored:
- diet eggs - a week;
- table eggs - 25 days;
- washed eggs - 12 days.
The aforementioned regulatory document clearly indicates the dates, but a sufficiently large temperature range is given. Therefore, people are more right than not. Humidity about 45% and temperatures up to 20 ºС are not bad storage conditions. However, a freezer with a few degrees below zero is the best option.
The right approach to fish
Fish is much more useful than meat. It is rich in valuable for the body protein, constituting as much as 20% by weight. It contains fatty acids that prevent heart disease and vascular problems, vitamins A, D, and E, which are responsible for cell growth, strong bones and muscles. With proper storage of fish pulp does not lose most of the nutrients.
According to GOST 1168, Far Eastern salmon, perch, carp, whitefish, pikeperch, pike, catfish and other representatives of freshwater bodies of water are stored at -18 ºС for up to 6 months. But cod, sea bass and other inhabitants of the seas and oceans at the same temperature - up to 4 months. If the freezer is less than 10 ºС, the storage time is divided by two.
So that the medicine does not become poison ...
For medicines, home appliance manufacturers have come up with special refrigerators. The latter are distinguished by high accuracy of regulation, the presence of light or sound messages in case of deviations from the optimum temperature range and special operating modes.
Such devices are more expensive than ordinary household counterparts. However, when the question of life is at stake, one does not have to choose.
When buying a fridge for drugs, pay attention to the compliance of its temperature regimes with the types of medicines that will be stored.Such models are protected from hacking. In fact, besides the main work, the refrigerator also performs the function of a safe.
In most cases, a lower temperature has a positive effect on the duration of storage of the product. However, if the best indicator for chicken eggs is several degrees below zero, then mayonnaise should be placed only in the refrigerator compartment.
On the domestic market, there are mainly freezers with a working temperature of -18 ºС… -24 ºС. Manufacturers willingly save, depriving the buyer the ability to adjust the temperature.
The advantages of zoning equipment
Modern refrigerators are manufactured according to the zonal principle. All countries or their individual territories are classified according to the climate.
For example, for a group of Scandinavian countries, models with a slightly lower thermal insulation index are relevant. The compressor is somewhat deformed.And for countries in the hot tropics, more powerful and wear-resistant devices are needed.
It is quite logical that if the average annual temperature in the room is several degrees higher, the refrigerator will work more intensively. Therefore, a device model for hot countries costs more than a similar model for Scandinavians.
Often the compressor operates with little or no interruption in tropical countries. However, even under such conditions, it is problematic to ensure the temperature corresponding to the selected mode. This is not surprising when warm air with a conditional temperature of 40 ° C heats the device from all sides.
Refrigerators for tropical countries are a bit more expensive than counterparts for cold ones. They are problematic to find in our market, but for most of the technical characteristics they look more convincing.
Two main temperature functions
The tough competition is forcing manufacturers of household appliances to invent new and new ways to attract the attention of the buyer.
They are no longer limited to marketing moves, but introduce interesting technological innovations to the operation of the refrigerating and freezing chambers. As a result, consumers get interesting opportunities.
The option "Supercooling" allows for a short period of time to lower the temperature in all zones of the refrigerating chamber to a minimum of 1 ºС ... 2 ºС. You can quickly cool foods with multiple packages at once.
For the freezer, the “Superfrost” mode is relevant. The temperature drops to -24 ° C. It is possible for several tens of minutes to freeze the camera overflowing with products.
Do not forget to transfer the equipment to normal operation in order not to waste energy and to store supplies at the optimum temperature.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is not recommended to expose to low temperatures. About this in the video:
The basic rules for the storage of provisions are discussed in the video:
How to organize the storage of stocks in the freezer:
Terms of storage of fruits, vegetables and berries:
The shelf life of provisions in the refrigerator:
Each food product has its own characteristics of storage. This information can be found in a few seconds on the packaging or, in its absence, on the Internet. Do not forget to place food in the appropriate areas of the refrigerator. Temperature conditions allow you to create optimal storage conditions, in vain do not wear the device and do not overpay for electricity.