What are the processors?

The processor is a key part of the hardware systemcomputer, performing logical and computational tasks. Its performance will largely depend on the machine's power, multitasking performance, and the speed with which the user's requirements are met. Depending on the technical characteristics, brand and type of structure, several types of processors can be distinguished.

Classification of processors by type

Digital processors

Digital to analog converter (digitalprocessor) is designed to process the received digital signal from a device into an analog one. The scope of digital converters is very wide. The simplest example would be CD players, in which elements of this type are mounted.

There are different types of analog processors: pulse-width modulators, DACs of weighting type, oversampling and so on. Since such processors are at the beginning of the analog path of any system, its characteristics largely depend on the parameters of the DAC.

Analog Processors

Here everything is the exact opposite: the analog signal is transformed into digital.

By the type of conversion, two types of analog-to-digital converters of ADC are distinguished: linear (are found most often) and nonlinear.

The scope of devices of this format is also wide. In particular, it's sound recording equipment, PCs, video cameras, separate devices for radio data transmission and so on.

Processors with multitasking (fuzzy) logic

In English, the term fuzzylogic. Their work is built on the basis of fuzzy mathematics, which allows you to work with input data, constantly changing in time, that is, with those whose parameters can not be set unambiguously.

For this, the system first analyzes the availableNumerical data (for example, results of a sociological survey or information obtained from a measuring device) and translates them into a fuzzy format (fazzy). Next, it processes the data according to the established rules and then, through defuzzification, translates the information into the familiar form and issues the finished work results.

The possibilities of fuzzy logic processors, although notlimitless, but still attractive enough to use them in a variety of areas, in particular, to effectively solve some of NASA's problems.

Trademark classification

The key brands involved in the production ofprocessors for PC, are Intel and AMD. For a long time between these two large companies there is a serious struggle for leadership in the market. And since the products of both one and the second brand are very high-quality, it's very difficult to say which processor is better. In each separate case it is necessary to compare similar models of devices from different brands to each other. In some cases, Intel wins, and in some laurels are given to AMD.

There are also IBM processors, but not soFor a long time, in the autumn of 2014 the company announced its intention to transfer this sphere of production to GlobalFoundries. For a well-known brand will retain the right to further developments in the field of promising new generation processors Power.

Classification by technical parameters

Speaking about that,what processors aredepending on their characteristics, we can distinguisha group of very powerful devices, medium-sized processors, and also rather weak devices that are suitable only for basic tasks (in the case of a PC it will be surfing the Internet, working with Microsoft Office, video and audio files).

The key parameters of the processor are:

  • Bit depth. This is an indicator that determines the number of bits of information analyzed by the processor in one operation. Accordingly, the higher this figure, the better. There are 32-, 64- and 128-bit processors.
  • Clock frequency - the pace of operations. In other words, this is an indicator of the speed of the device. This is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). The spread in the data is quite large - from 900 MHz to 4 GHz. Naturally, processors with the latest performance are the fastest.
  • Number of cores (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12). This indicator largely determines the degree of multitasking PC. However, a large number of cores does not mean that your processor will be much more efficient than its "less nuclear" competitors, since today not every program written for a PC takes into account this indicator.
  • Cache memory. It is necessary for the processor to store the temporary data received during the execution of tasks. This parameter allows the PC not to wait for the response of RAM, but to work based on the information stored in the cache memory of the processor. This has a positive effect on performance. The cache memory is of three levels. The first level is the most expensive. Such memory operates on one clock frequency with the processor and is directly used by its cores. The second level differs from the first by a lower speed, but by greater capacity. The third level, though noticeably faster than the RAM, is however significantly slower than the memory of the first two levels. But it also has the largest volume, and therefore such cache memory is put in very powerful PCs designed to perform resource-intensive tasks.

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