What are organelles?

At school in the lessons of biology study in detailcell structure. Each living cell has a definite structure, each of its components performs a certain function to maintain the vital activity of the cell. These constituent cells are called organoids (in other words, organelles).

Organoids are the organs of a cell that are responsible for the transport of substances, synthesis, division, storage of genetic information, movement, etc.

The structure of eukaryotic organoids includes:

  • membrane,
  • cytoplasm,
  • chromosome,
  • Golgi apparatus,
  • mitochondria,
  • endoplasmic reticulum,
  • lysosomes,
  • vacuoles,
  • core,
  • ribosomes,
  • microfilaments,
  • microtubules.

Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes do not have such a rich composition of organoids. The organoids of prokaryotes include the membrane and ribosomes.

There are also differences between animal and plant cells. In the plant cell, in addition to the basic composition, plastids are contained, in the animal - microfibrils and centrioles.

Let us consider in more detail what organelles are, by the example of eukaryotes.

Plasma membrane

It is a small film consistingfrom proteins and lipids. The membrane protects the cell, it also performs a transport function - transfer of water, nutrients, and excretory to the cell - unnecessary substances are removed from it through the cell.

Cytoplasm

It is a semi-liquid medium inside the cell, it binds the nucleus and organoids, and also takes part in the processes of cell vital activity.

Microfilaments

Microfilaments are yarns made up of proteinactin. Present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotes. Perform several functions, including participation in changing the shape of cells, endomitosis, displacement of vesicles (small organelles storing or transporting nutrients), etc.

Microtubules

These are intracellular protein structures that resemble cylinders in shape. Participate in various cell processes - cytokinesis, mitosis, transportation of vesicles.

Endoplasmic reticulum

A network consisting of several channels incytoplasm. Participates in the transport of substances and the synthesis of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Also on it or in the cytoplasm are located ribosomes, which consist of protein and RNA. Ribosomes are involved in the process of protein synthesis.

Mitochondria

Organoids inside the cell, protected from the cytoplasm by two membranes. They oxidize organic substances and synthesize ATP molecules.

Plastids

Plastids (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leukoplasts) -important components of plant cells. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which converts energy and uses it to synthesize organic matter from water and carbon dioxide.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi complex is a cavity in which proteins, carbohydrates and fats accumulate. The Golgi apparatus is involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates and fats.

Lysosomes

They contain enzymes that accelerate the cleavagecomplex molecules into simple ones: proteins - to amino acids, complex carbohydrates - to simple ones, lipids - to glycerol and fatty acids. Also, lysosomes are involved in the destruction of cells and dead cells.

Vacuoles

They are cavities filled with juice. Vacuoles accumulate nutrients and regulate the amount of water.

Core

This is the main component of the cell. Outside, it is covered with two membranes having pores through which the nucleus is supplied and various substances are removed from it. The nucleus participates in the process of synthesizing DNA, i-RNA and p-RNA. In the nucleus there are chromosomes containing hereditary information about the body. Each chromosome consists of DNA and proteins.

Of course, if you go into the study of the organoids of the cell, you will find many more nuances. Here the information is presented in a general form.

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