Warm water floor in a private house: the scheme, the rules of the device + installation instructions

Debugged heating system - a pledge of a comfortable stay in the house without regard for weather conditions. Along with the traditional radiator technology, heating circuit devices actively use a warm water floor in a private house, and they often assemble it with their own hands.

It is expensive, time consuming, requires skill and experience, but after 5 years it pays off.

Water floor installation conditions

An additional heating circuit is recommended to be included in the project even before construction begins - it is easier to make calculations.

In the finished new house or building where the radiator system has been functioning for a long time, the installation of a water floor is also possible, but under certain conditions.

Schematic image of a warm water floor
The advantages of water heating have long been appreciated by residents of Europe and Russia: it effectively heats the room, saves expensive energy, creates the most comfortable atmosphere in the bedrooms,Bathrooms and children's rooms

If the desire to warm the floor has arisen after the construction of the house, you should determine whether the building is suitable for this. One of the main conditions is pre-made insulation of the house, since heat losses above 100 W / m² will make floor installation useless.

Pay attention to the height of the ceilings: the installation “cake” with pipes takes about 15 cm, or even more from the total height of the room. After the introduction of the system, the dimensions of the doorways, the height of 210 cm and more should be preserved.

Pipes on a flat clean floor
Special requirements are imposed on the base. It should be durable, smooth, clean. Unstable base will lead to irregularities, and those - to the deformation of pipes with coolant

If the house is new, then before starting the installation it is necessary to complete the construction completely - to build walls and ceiling, to insert windows, to make plastering.

Design and assembly rules

The decision to choose a water floor, rather than an electric analogue that does not require scrupulous installation, is optimal for heating systems on gas boilers.

Such schemes are recognized as the least energy-intensive, maximum efficient and inexpensive to operate.Options with solid fuel boilers are also permissible.

Flawless operation of the system is possible only under two conditions: professionally executed design calculations and well-performed installation.

Consequently, the first steps on the way to the device of a water heated floor in the country or in a private house are the analysis of the structure, the choice of materials, the drafting of the project.

Nuances of the device warm floor

The construction of the construction of the water floor is complex and simple at the same time. It is multicomponent in composition, so the main thing is to follow the order of laying all layers.

Scheme "wet" warm floor
The “wet” type scheme is recognized as universal, in which the contours of the water floor are laid on the heat-insulating layer, and on top are filled with cement screed

Each element of the "pie" has a special function. The basis for the design is the ground or concrete slab. A thin film is laid on it (but not less than 0.1 mm thick) - ordinary polyethylene or more expensive equivalent.

Then cover the floor with insulating material. One of the best options - extruded polystyrene foam - durable, relatively inexpensive, with low thermal conductivity.

Minimum requirements:

  • density - from 40 kg / m³;
  • thickness - from 300 mm.

The main layer is cement pouring, inside of which pipes with heat carrier will be located. Plasticizers are added to the solution to make it more mobile and comfortable to lay.

For strength, the coupler is reinforced with a reinforcing mesh with a cell of 50 * 50 mm or larger 100 * 100 mm and a core thickness of 3-5 mm.

Marking flooring for underfloor heating
Finishing layer - heat-resistant flooring. The best material is recognized ceramic tile, which perfectly conducts heat. When buying linoleum or laminate, you should choose products with special marking "warm floor"

The thermal regime will depend on the choice of the finishing coating, which can be adjusted automatically or manually by means of mixing nodes - collectors.

What principles of styling adhere to?

First required to make calculations. This is a separate and complex topic, but for independent quick calculations you can use the online calculator, scoring individual parameters in the required columns.

If the construction company is engaged in warm floors, then the settlement operations are carried out by its specialists.

As a calculated basis, standard checked figures are taken, which must be adhered to regardless of the method of installation and specific installation conditions.

Image Gallery
Photos of
Heated floors in the children's room
Heated floors in the children's room
Pipes with coolant in the room
Pipes with coolant in the room
Water contours on the floor
Water contours on the floor
Layout spacing between pipes
Layout spacing between pipes

Usually, PEX pipes, which are closer than 10–15 cm apart, will not be used for mounting, as there is a high risk of wrinkles. If the heat load on the floor is small, for example, many people like to relax in cool bedrooms, then a layout step of up to 60 cm is allowed.

A few more helpful tips:

  • one circuit is not distributed into two rooms;
  • for a room of 35-40 m² there is not enough 1 contour, at least 2;
  • one side of the contour - no more than 8 m;
  • damper tape compensates for deformation during thermal expansion.

There are exceptions. For example, if the toilet and the bathroom are small in size and are located next door, then a single water circuit is enough to heat them.

Ways to install water circuits

It has long been invented the most effective types of installation of pipes - "snail" and "snake", so you will not have to experiment with the device contours.

Pipe laying patterns
There are many varieties of two popular methods, the choice depends on the configuration of the room, the length of the circuit and temperature. Sometimes optimal combined schemes

The easiest option to implement - "snake". Its minus is a big difference in the temperature of the coolant at the inlet / outlet. It should be borne in mind that the second half of the circuit will give less heat.

«Snail»Distributes heat evenly throughout the room, but it is more difficult to perform. If the owners do not want to divide the room into warm and cool zones, then it is better to use this method.

To save pipes and increase energy efficiency, a combination of two options is often used: a “snail” is laid in the center, and a “snake” along the walls. If you correctly arrange the hinges and calculate the laying step, then the floor temperature will be as comfortable as possible for the occupants.

Properly choose materials

Warm water floors are flooded with a screed, which means that they are planned to be used not for years, but for decades.

Given the long term of use, the choice of materials should be approached responsibly: to exclude cheap and illiquid products,select high-quality pipes, insulation, fasteners with a maximum service life.

No. 1 - we select the optimal variant of pipes

Now two types of pipes are used - PE-X and PERT, both made of cross-linked polyethylene. The advantage of PE-Xa products, since they have a memory effect due to the 85% density of crosslinking.

The beneficial effect is that stretched by a heat carrier with a high temperature or deformed pipes always return to their original position.

Installation of PE-Xa pipes
PE-Xa pipes with axial fittings can be bricked up safely in cement, while alternative PERT products with collet fittings should be left open to the public.

The use of PERT pipes is justified if there are solid pieces in the coupler and fittings are installed only for attachment to the collector.

Experienced builders do not recommend using composite pipes with aluminum foil - there is always the risk of detachment of the metallized layer. If you need maximum reliability and isolation, it is better to use products with reinforcement of polyvinylethylene, located inside the product.

Marking on the pipe for floor heating
Three standard sizes of products are used for water floors: Ø 16 mm, 17 and 20 mm with a wall thickness of 2 mm. The diameter is indicated on the marking applied along the entire length of the pipe.

Construction companies usually work with proven manufacturers responsible for the performance of their products. Well-proven products of promoted brandsRehauandValtecas well as less knownTece,Kan,Uponor.

No. 2 - we are determined with a heater

The main purpose of the insulation is to separate the tie with the pipes from the base, so that the heat transfer is carried out upwards, and does not go in vain to the ground. The heat-insulating layer is obligatory, without it the installation of a warm floor loses its meaning.

Now they use two types of insulation, as the rest lose to them in all respects. itextruded polystyrene foamin the form of slabs andprofile matsfrom expanded polystyrene with assembly ledges.

Extruded polystyrene on the floor
Extruded polystyrene is popular for its mechanical strength and low thermal conductivity. It practically does not pass moisture that is important for pools, bathrooms, baths

EPS plates are convenient for installation and have standard sizes: 600 * 1250 mm, 500 * 1000 mm. Thickness - from 20 to 100 mm, the choice of it depends on the required degree of insulation. Thanks to the mounting side grooves at the joints of adjacent plates do not arise gaps.

Profile floor mats
Profile mats greatly facilitate the laying of pipes, but many refuse to buy them because of the high cost, especially well-known brands. Sheet thickness is less than EPPS - 1-3 mm

How to determine the required thickness of insulation? It all depends on the conditions of installation in a particular private house: 10 cm plates are laid on the ground, 5 cm is enough over the basement or basement, and if there is a heated room at the bottom, then 3 cm insulation is enough.

For fixing the plates to the floor using dish-shaped dowels, and for fixing the pipes - harpoon-brackets. The distance between adjacent brackets is from 30 cm to half a meter, in places of pipe turns - 10 cm.

№3 - we buy components for the collector

The collector-mixing unit is the distribution center of the coolant and the point of control of the functioning of the heated floor. With its help, hot water is directed from the main to individual circuits, it monitors the flow rate of the heat carrier, and regulates the temperature.

Assembled collectors are not sold, as each system has its own characteristics. It is better to entrust the purchase of components to specialists, and for an independent purchase all the necessary elements should be kept in mind:

Image Gallery
Photos of
Manifolds with valves
Manifolds with valves
Pipe Fittings
Pipe Fittings
Automatic air vent on the manifold
Automatic air vent on the manifold
Brackets for fixing on the wall
Brackets for fixing on the wall
Drainage taps for draining
Drainage taps for draining
Metal collector cabinet
Metal collector cabinet
Mixing unit with a pump
Mixing unit with a pump
Thermometer or temperature limiter
Thermometer or temperature limiter

The installation site often depends on the nuances of maintenance: it is more convenient for one to adjust the ECP in the boiler room, together with the boiler, and the other from the corridor. Theoretically, the collector cabinet can be installed in any room at home, but it is desirable that the length of all circuits be approximately the same.

TVP Installation Guide

Before laying the construction of a heated floor, preparatory work should be carried out: to purchase components, to outline the installation location of the cabinet, to continue openings for communications in the walls. Then you can proceed to the first stage.

Step # 1 - Rough Floor Device

If you plan to equip the warm floor directly on the ground, it is recommended to choose one of the two options:

  • to make a "rough" tie of cement fill;
  • instead of a screed, pour, compact and level the layer of sand.

A layer of sand is required in any case, as it serves as the basis for the screed. A layer of waterproofing is put on it, the most elementary option is a thick plastic film.

Sand leveling
Compaction and leveling of the sand layer is very important.Small cavities up to 5 cm deep are allowed, but for pipe installation it is better if it is perfectly smooth.

When calculating, it should be remembered that the heat loss when the system is installed along the ground is higher, therefore, the temperature of the coolant in the pipes must be greater than normal.

Step # 2 - Laying the thermal insulation layer

Insulation is laid on a clean, flat floor. Before starting work on the walls, they beat off a strip - the level of a clean floor, small depressions, if they were formed during construction, fall asleep with clean, dry sand.

Installation instructions:

  • Spread waterproofing - lay sheets of film with a density of 150-200 microns with an overlap of at least 10 cm and wrap on the walls.
  • Lay the plates of extruded polystyrene foam marking up, aligning the grooves between them. Start better from the far corner.
  • If necessary, cut out the fragments with a construction knife.
  • Fasten the plates with dish-shaped dowels at the corners, in the middle of the joints and in the center of the plates.
  • Seal the seams with building tape.

If you need to lay the second layer, then the direction of the upper plates is better to change, that is, put them perpendicular to the bottom.

Laying extruded polystyrene foam
When laying should avoid large gaps and cracks. If they are still formed, voids can be blown out with foam or covered with polystyrene foam scraps.

It is recommended to lay thin boards or pieces of plywood to move around the boards during installation - the structure of the plates, despite the density, can be deformed.

Step # 3 - Layout and Placement of Pipes

Marking is applied to the surface of the plates using a marker or masking cord. If instead of EPPS applied mats, markup is not required.

Device for uncoiling the bay
There is a risk of breaking and twisting the pipe when unwinding, therefore it is better to use a special device for spinning the bay. Manually unwind will have longer

Before starting installation of pipes, it is also advised to install collectors and prepare places for connections.

Installation instructions:

  1. To wind off from a pipe of 15-20 m, to put on the heat-insulating sleeve and the fitting for connection at the end.
  2. Connect to the collector.
  3. Carefully lay the pipe according to the markup.
  4. Fix the contour of the harpoon-brackets.
  5. Bring the pipe to the collector, connect the second end.

The length of each loop must be fixed, and not easy to remember, but to be recorded near the fitting on the wall.

Insulation Damper Tape
A damper tape or some kind of a substitute is placed along the edges - for example, pieces of foam 1.5-2 cm in thickness. They hold well on liquid nails.

Transit pipes passing through the walls or transition zones, maximally insulated with sleeves. Instead of expensive imported products, you can use ordinary insulation - polyethylene foam.

Step # 4 - mounting the reinforcing mesh

Properly laid reinforcement should be above the pipes, not under them or between them. Acceptable option - a metal mesh with a cell 10 * 10 cm of 3-mm wire.

Metal mesh over pipes
It is wrong to fix the contours to the metal grid, in which case it will perform the function of a stand, and not of reinforcement. Competent laying - when the grid above the pipes

Now many people use plastic instead of wire mesh. This option is also suitable, since the polymer creates the necessary rigidity.

Step # 5 - System Testing

Until hydraulic tests have been carried out to check the tightness of the system, the coupler cannot be poured. Usually the contours are checked in turn.

First, a line and a pump are connected to the pipe and water is supplied.For discharge use a hose connected to the drain manifold.

Opressovochny the pump for check
Opressovochny pump - the best device for testing the system. It can be rented. You can also hire a specialist to test, who usually have the necessary tools.

During the test, staples can fly off, as the pressure pipe tends to straighten. The flown away harpoons are fixed 5 cm from the previous place, after casting the screed it will not fly off anymore.

Step 6 - Laying the cement screed

The pipes are left under a pressure of 5 bar and begin to lay the screed. Usually used traditional beacon method. As beacons, you can use a metal profile for drywall.

Fill the floor with cement mortar
Conventional screed solution is not suitable; plasticizers and fiber must be added to the cement, since the load will be not only mechanical, but also temperature

Laying perform parts, starting from the far corner. Each fragment immediately after pouring is necessary to align, eliminate the dips and sagging.

After 2 days, the surface is cleaned, the damper tape is cut, the screed is sprayed with water and covered with a film (the last two steps are repeated for 10 days).


The full maturation of the cement screed occurs after a month, and it is then that the balancing should be performed using collector flowmeters.

Balancing underfloor heating
By means of balancing valves they regulate the flow rate of the coolant, in all circuits it should be the same. If there is no self-balancing experience, it is better to invite a specialist.

After handling the cold water, if the system works correctly, it is possible to carry out tests with a heated coolant. On it installation of a heat-insulated floor is considered finished.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

General installation rules for economical owners:

Practical advice from experienced builders:

What mistakes should be avoided:

When building a warm floor there are dozens of solutions, thanks to which you can save on components or choose the optimally suitable scheme.. If you are not in a hurry and spend more time on the design, carefully select the pipes and the collector, the heated floor will fulfill its functions 100% and will not need to be repaired for many years.

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