Typology of societies
Societies differ from each other in different parameters. However, in them there are also the same signs on which the typology of societies is built.
In order to classify them, you must firstchoose the basis for typologization. Such a basis for the typology of societies can serve as a form of state power, political relations. Scientists of Ancient Greece, for example, distinguished monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy. Modern researchers identify totalitarian and democratic states. In the first case, all the directions of public life are determined by the state, in the second - the people can influence state institutions.
Marxist typology of societies took as a basisdifferences in the types of production relations existing under different socio-economic systems, and singled out primitive communal societies; slave-owning societies; feudal and feudal; communist societies with the first phase - the socialist.
Classifications are very diverse,However, the most common in modern sociology is a typology of societies that takes as a basis the traditional, industrial and post-industrial societies.
Traditional society (simple, agrarian) is an agrarian society with inactive social structures, in which the mode of social regulation is based on traditions. Traditionala typesocietiesstrictly controls the behavior of individualsby observing the customs and norms of orthodox behavior, established social institutions, where the most important are the family, the community. Any attempts at social change are rejected. Such a society is characterized by low rates of development.
Industrial society is such a typeorganization of a social system that combines the freedom and interests of the individual with the social principles that govern the joint activities of people. It is characterized by the flexibility of social structures, social mobility, developed communication system.
In the second half of the twentieth century,various theories of the postindustrial (information) society (A. Turen, D. Bell, J. Habermas). These concepts were caused by significant changes in the socio-economic and cultural life of developed countries. The main in the society are knowledge and information, computer technology. People who have received the relevant education, having access to new information, get the advantage of moving up the social ladder. The goal of man in such a postindustrial society is creative activity.
The Negative Side of the Information Societyis manifested in the fact that there is some danger of strengthening state control over people, thanks to their access to electronic means of mass communication.
- transition from the commodity economy to the service sector;
- the dominance of professionally educated technical specialists;
- the predominant role belongs to theoretical knowledge as a source of discoveries and political decisions;
- control over technologies;
- Increasing ability to make decisions based on intelligent information technology.
The last distinctive feature is due to lifeincreasing needs of the new information society. The basis of social development in such a society is not the traditional material resources, but information, intellectual: scientific factors, knowledge, intellectual potential of people, their creativity, initiative. All of the above can be considered as a different typology of societies.