Typical schemes and rules for drafting a heating system for a one-story private house
The heating system in a single-storey house can be installed according to various schemes. When choosing the best option, take into account the project budget and availability of fuels.
As well as the features of the structural elements of a private residential building: the area of the object, the materials used in the construction, the availability of a warehouse for the installation of boiler equipment.
Requirements for individual heating
The thermal unit must be planned so that it corresponds to the architectural design of the building. The location of all functional elements should be as convenient as possible for operation and for carrying out planned repair work without violating the structural integrity of the house.
Basic requirements for modern heating systems:
- energy efficiency;
- simple installation and maintenance;
- high heat transfer rates;
- full / partial independence from electricity.
Before you begin to design the heat supply, you need to choose the most suitable source of heat energy - a stove or fireplace, water, steam, air or electric heating.
And yet it is necessary to determine the concept of piping for heating a single-story private house, accurately calculate the power and objectively estimate the load on the system, taking into account all the features.
Properly installed distributing heating line allows you to organize a uniform heating of the air in all rooms of a private house for the minimum amount of time.
Classification of heating systems
In single-storey buildings, cottages, houses are mounted autonomous heating systems or dependent on external power sources. The first ones operate on liquefied gas, diesel and solid fuels.The second - need to be connected to the mains or the main gas pipeline.
Another difference between the options for heating is the need for human participation in the equipment.
Systems with automated control do not require round-the-clock monitoring or manual configuration. Maintaining a comfortable temperature inside the building is provided by thermostats and thermal sensors.
These devices regularly monitor changes in temperature indicators, which allows the heating system to take into account all factors that have a direct impact on the room temperature: solar heat, the radiation of household appliances, heating from lamps for lighting, etc.
Automation allows you to change the temperature in the house at different times of the day.
When classifying heating systems take into account such signs as:
- type of heat carrier - air, water or steam, combined;
- type of fuel used - gas, electric, peat, wood, pellet, coal;
- method of transporting the working fluid - with natural and forced circulation;
- the course of the coolant movement is passing and dead-end;
- method of connecting boiler equipment - one-pipe and two-pipe layout;
- wiring diagram - with vertical or horizontal distribution line distribution, upper or lower, combined.
In multi-apartment buildings, the vertical layout is dominant, and in single-storey buildings it is horizontal. Combined methods of heat supply prevail in high-rise new buildings.
Features of the coolant circulation
In private low-rise buildings, it is effective to install heating systems with a heat-transfer fluid. To do this, the pipes are filled with non-freezing antifreeze or water.
The movement of the working fluid along the heating circuit can be carried out in natural or forced mode. The water heated by the heat generator enters the distribution pipe, and then to the radiators. This part of the circuit is called a direct stroke.
After entering the batteries, the heat-transfer fluid cools down and rapidly goes to the boiler for heating. This gap is called reversing. To speed up the transportation of coolant inside the system, a circulation pump is mounted.
Natural fluid movement
In the heating circuit make the slope of horizontal pipelines, creating the conditions for the movement of the working fluid under the action of gravity. They also install an open expansion tank - a special tank for receiving excess water in order to ensure proper and safe operation of all network nodes.
There are heating systems with natural circulation due to the different density of the heated and cold coolant. According to the laws of physics, hot water rushes up.
In a closed circuit, cold flows inevitably displace heated ones, forcing them to move in the opposite direction from the heat source. A moving fluid with the potential of kinetic energy passes through all the batteries, giving off heat.After returning to the boiler equipment, the cycle repeats.
In order for the gravitational construction to work fully, the boiler is installed below the central axis of the main circuit. Usually, the heat generator is mounted in a recess of the floor, but sometimes in basements, with the exception of gas units.
The feed pipe from the boiler is raised in the vertical direction to the highest possible point. This creates additional space in a closed loop to accelerate the working fluid.
The number of required valves in gravity heating systems is minimized. Strict requirements are placed on the diameter of the installed pipes - it must be at least 32 mm. Since the rate of movement of water in the circuit is insignificant, in order to increase the efficiency of heating, only large diameter pipes are mounted.
An autonomous heating system, the principle of action of which is based on the natural method of circulation of the heat-transfer fluid, is the simplest. Such a house heating project is easy to put into practice. However, this option is only suitable for small-sized private buildings, as the length of the heating circuit is limited to 30 meters.
The main advantage of self-flowing systems is complete independence from electricity.
Forced circulation in the system
For private buildings with a total area of more than 60 square meters. m design heating with the forced transportation of the working fluid. In a closed loop, a circulation pump is installed to provide accelerated movement of the hot coolant to the radiators, and the cooled one to the heat generator.
Installation of pipes in the system can be performed without a slope in the horizontal plane. Water moves due to the difference in pressure that occurs in the section of the line between the forward and reverse flow of fluid.
A significant disadvantage of a coercive system is volatility. For the continuous circulation of water in the circuit requires the continuous operation of the pump, and its performance depends on the power supply.
In the event of a sudden power outage, the equipment simply will not be able to pump liquid. Therefore, experts recommend installing additional backup generators that can provide stable, uninterrupted heat supply even in unforeseen situations.
Such schemes can be involved in the installation of heating in buildings of any size. It is only necessary to select a circulation pump with suitable power ratings and provide power.
Single pipe heating system
The house has only one main line under the floor or above it with a series connection of batteries. In such a heating circuit there is no distribution to the supply pipe and the return.
Along the perimeter of a single-story building, only one circular pipe with a diameter of at least 32 mm is mounted, which is conventionally divided in half. The half leaving the heat generator is called the supply, and the second part of the line is called the return. With a welded or seamless pipe of small diameter, radiators / convectors are mounted in the loop.
The one-pipe scheme includes the following functional elements:
- heat supply source (boiler);
- heating radiators;
- expansion tank;
- elements of distributing pipes.
The heated fluid flows alternately into the radiators, each time giving off some of its heat. After that, it is already cooled returns to the boiler for the next heating cycle. Heat is lost in each battery and the last element in the chain remains the coldest compared to the others.
There are several ways to optimize the performance of a single pipe system. You can additionally install special thermostatic valves for heat exchangers, balancing valves with adjustable hydraulic resistance or compact ball valves.Such equipment helps to normalize the flow of heat to the batteries.
Another way is to increase the number of sections of each next radiator in the heating circuit. And you can also install a circulating pump. The pumping device is connected at the end of the return line - the place where the working fluid has the lowest temperature values.
The one-pipe heating variant is notable for its easy installation and commissioning. Heat losses are minimized, since absolutely all communications are located inside the living rooms of a private house.
Such a scheme can be organized in the form of a system with horizontal wiring and forced movement of the coolant or a vertical heating network with natural, forced or combined movement of the working fluid.
Horizontal wiring method
Installation of the supply pipe in the horizontal plane is performed with the desired slope in the direction of the heated water. In this case, all the batteries around the perimeter of the house should be installed on the same level.To release the air from the radiators use Mayevsky's taps or automatic air vent devices.
A horizontal highway can be installed in the floor structure itself or mounted above it. To avoid heat loss, in the first case, you must insulate the pipes.
In such a system, the transportation of the liquid coolant provides a natural circulation mode, and therefore there is no need to install an additional pump. Non-volatility is the main plus of a single-pipe vertical heating system at home.
With this method of wiring, the working fluid, heated to a predetermined temperature, moves up the riser, after which it flows through the distribution pipes to the batteries. The effectiveness of the operation of a vertically located one-pipe system is achieved by installing a trunk line under the slope, as well as installing large-diameter pipes.
Of course, a massive pipeline will not decorate the interior of living rooms. But this obvious drawback can be avoided by installing circulating equipment in the system.
Two-pipe heating system
The main difference between the two-pipe heating system at home is the presence of one pipe for water supply and another one for its return. And in the first comes hot liquid, the second is directed to the boiler is already cooled coolant.
Each battery is serviced by both the feeder and the return riser. This makes it possible to regulate the amount of heat produced by individual radiators. If you do not take into account the cooling of the coolant in the pipes, it turns out that all heating elements receive liquid with the same temperature.
The two-pipe heating scheme includes:
- heat generator;
- expansion tank;
- shutoff valves and special devices for air release.
A hot water pipe goes from the boiler to the expansion tank.It then connects to the distribution line in the heating circuit. In addition, an overflow pipe is punched into the tank for the timely removal of excess coolant into the sewer system.
From the bottom of the heat exchangers out pipes, combined in a single return line. On it the cooled coolant is returned back to the boiler. The return pipeline is laid strictly parallel to the upper pipes. It must pass through all the rooms where the hot water line is laid.
Two-pipe systems with coercion are considered the most effective for one-story houses and cottages, but they can provide heat and two-story buildings of a large area.
And these allow you to warm up the room evenly and very quickly and maintain different temperature conditions in the rooms. In addition, the double-circuit performance makes it possible to organize not only the heating of the house, but also hot water supply.
Closed heating systems with forced circulation are mounted in two versions - with horizontal and vertical wiring.
The first method is implemented in one-story houses with a long pipeline.In such situations, the connection of water radiators to the heating circuit with horizontal wiring is the best solution.
In the second version of the layout, the riser is located vertically, which allows the circuit to be used even in high-rise buildings. In such systems, air does not accumulate, since the bubbles that form are instantly rising in a vertical direction, directly into the expansion tank.
Lower and upper wiring diagram
With the lower wiring of the system, the highway is laid in the basement or basement. Installation of pipes under the floor is also allowed. The coolant enters the heating equipment from the bottom up.
Removal of a mixture of gases through a special air line connected to the risers. In case of unforeseen emergency situations, the return and supply risers are equipped with special taps for shutdown.
To implement the scheme with the top distribution line, the expansion tank is mounted at the highest point of the pipeline. Network branching is also performed in the same place.
Types of twin-tube horizontal system
The most common option for heating a residential one-story house is a two-pipe heating system with horizontal wiring. To organize such a heating circuit, the following schemes are used:
- tee or otherwise perimeter;
- collector, otherwise ray.
According to the tee scheme, pipes are connected with tees, pipelines are laid along the perimeter of the room, and are connected in series to the devices. The coolant in the perimeter system flows from one battery to another, cooling slightly along the way.
According to the movement of the heated and cooled coolant, the tee-type variants are divided into passing and oncoming ones. In a dead-end circuit, hot and chilled water moves in different directions. In the associated heated and waste coolant flows in one direction.
In the collector circuit from the central organ of the system, the manifold, pipes are passed to each of the radiators, due to which the coolant enters all the instruments simultaneously. The principle of the device resembles the sun's rays emanating from a heat flow distributor, usually located in the center. In the radial versions of the layout, the coolant moves only in different directions.
Rules for drafting a heating system
A well-designed project allows you to run the most efficient and multifunctional heating system. It should work smoothly in the climatic conditions characteristic of a particular locality, where the one-story house is located, be easy to operate.
Drawing up a quality project for heating a one-story house and an accurate calculation of the system parameters is carried out according to a certain plan:
- At the first stage it is necessary to form a technical task taking into account all the requirements and details for the heating system.
- The second step is to collect information on a private object. Experts must remove all indicators to draw up a circuit of the heating circuit.
- The next stage is the calculation of heat transfer. To do this, it is necessary to carry out calculations and choose the optimal heating scheme that will meet the basic building standards and individual customer requirements.
- When all calculations are completed, drawings are made.
- The last stage - the design and delivery of the finished project of the heating system to the customer.
The main task of the design is to calculate the correct area of the heating equipment, to select suitable diameters of pipelines. And also to determine the performance of pumping devices, calculate the points of penetration of valves and system nodes. Therefore, it is advisable to entrust the process to professionals.
What information do masters need?
Before the installation work begins, it is necessary to discuss with the experts all the nuances, to show your vision of the heating system.
Masters must provide:
- full information about the materials from which the roof of the building is made, the overlapping walls, window designs;
- plan of a one-story house;
- drawings, where the locations of plumbing fixtures are marked.
The life of the heating system is influenced not only by the quality of engineering design and skillful installation, but also by the selected materials, installed boiler equipment, as well as the rational use of heating elements.
Useful video on the topic
In the video, 3-D scheme, arrangement and installation of a heating system for a single-pipe layout in a one-story private house:
A schematic representation of a two-pipe heating system made of polypropylene, the correct connection of boiler equipment and the installation of heating radiators are shown in the video:
In the video, a typical heating project and calculation of heat losses are disassembled:
Modern heating systems are integral attributes of the functioning of private houses, cottages and other construction objects. Professionally executed design is the key to efficient, reliable and long-term trouble-free operation of an individual heating network.