Steel heating radiators: types, characteristics and advantages of batteries
One of the priority components of the comfort of the room is a comfortable temperature, the achievement and maintenance of which would be impossible without the availability of high-quality batteries.
The most popular are steel radiators of heating, characterized by good thermal inertia, high reliability and heat dissipation.
What materials do batteries make of?
Radiators not only help to create a pleasant temperature regime in the room, but can also become a real decoration of the room. They are radically different from each other by the material of manufacture.
The following options are in great demand on the market of heating equipment:
- cast iron;
Aluminum appliances have a light weight and a modern look.A characteristic feature is the efficiency of energy resources spent on heating and ease of installation work. Thanks to the thin walls of the batteries, fast warm-up and high heat transfer is achieved.
Bimetallic - this model, for the manufacture of which used steel and aluminum. The successful combination of metals provides rapid warming up and increases the ability to withstand pressure loads. This type of radiator is suitable for both autonomous and central heating systems.
The pig-iron equipment is characterized by high degree of a thermolysis, reliability and durability. These are unassuming outlines, like those of the old MS-140 models well-known from Soviet times. Also produced and more respectable models with modernized and modified surfaces, smoothed inside and out.
Copper batteries are durable, but differ in a fairly high price.Therefore, they are used quite rarely.
Steel heat exchangers are characterized by simplicity of design, which contributes to the provision of convection heating of the room.
For a more detailed acquaintance with steel radiators, it is necessary to understand their classification by type, to get acquainted with the technical characteristics, features of installation work and operation.
Main types of steel radiators
Steel is ideal for the manufacture of radiators, due to the flexibility, strength, ductility, wear resistance. These devices may differ in their shape and design. By the principle of the device they can be divided into tubular and panel.
As for tubular steel radiators, they consist of rectangular or round pipes, and panel - from 1-2-3 panels. To make a decision on the choice of the optimal type of heater you need to fully understand the technical and structural features of each of them.
Panel heating devices
Panel devices successfully combine the functions of a convector and a radiator, differ to primitiveness in a simple and effective design.They are presented in the form of two, connected by welding, plates. Thanks to the connection, a sealed space is created for the circulation of the coolant. The use of spot welding ensures high reliability of the weld.
Upon contact with almost any type of coolant, the steel is subjected to corrosion, its physical wear and tear can reach 0.1 mm per year. The reduction of this negative indicator is ensured by the high quality of painting performed in the following ways:
- cathode electrophoresis- when the paint is applied to the surface of the device and under the influence of a current source with a negative value penetrates deep into the pores of the material;
- anode electrophoresis- this type of staining proceeds similarly to the cathode one, only the surface has a positive charge;
- immersion- steel devices are simply immersed in the dye mixture.
The most progressive method is considered to be cathode electrophoresis, which has successfully proven itself in many industries, including the painting of car bodies.
Features of panel radiators
All panel radiators can be classified into types depending on the number of convector heat exchangers and the number of panels.
Panel batteries are guaranteed a long service life at coolant temperature up to 70 degrees. It is important that the maximum temperature of the fluid circulating in the system does not exceed the 100-degree limit.
When installing panel steel radiators take into account that their working pressure should be no higher than 10 bar. This indicator is quite enough when there is central heating in a house or apartment - the pressure in the system is 9 bar.
However, it is necessary to take into account that during the inspection of the system before launch, short-term water hammer up to 15 bar is possible. The test pressure of panel radiators is 13 bar, so they can not withstand water hammer that exceeds this value.
If it is decided to install panel heating equipment in rooms heated centrally,it is necessary to provide for the installation of special gearboxes that prevent the critical load on the radiator.
Battery power is determined by its design, size of panels, their number. So, in the absence of convectors in models of types 10 and 20, the radiation of heat is provided by the panel itself.
But the presence of a convector allows you to create a heat curtain, while cutting off the cold air that comes from the window. Not the last role in the formation of power plays the size of the device.
The length of the steel radiators is in the range of 0.4-3.0 m, and the height varies from 0.3 m to 0.9 m. The most popular devices are 21, 22 and 11 types. They, with a maximum size of 3000 mm, have the following characteristics:
- VKO 11 has one panel with a 3.15 kW convector;
- VKO 21 consists of two panels with a 4.2 kW convector;
- In VKO 22 there are two panels with two convectors of 6.25 kW.
Another parameter that should not be neglected when choosing a steel radiator is its depth. It is determined by the number of sections used in the instrument.
How can I connect steel batteries
On the market are panel radiators that allow you to realize the bottom and side connection to the pipe system. When choosing a device, it is necessary to take into account the type of connection, since in different conditions and places of connection to the circuit, radiators of both types of connection may be required.
The bottom connection allows you to hide the pipes in the wall or the floor. It should be borne in mind that with the lower connection the aesthetic side of the interior is maximally ensured, while the efficiency of the radiator is reduced by 15-20% due to losses.
Installation work on the side connection is much easier, and heat transfer is higher. The side connection of the panel radiator provides connection to both vertical risers and the contour along the floor.
Pros and cons of panel radiators
Panel-type batteries, like any equipment, have their strengths and weaknesses. Their main advantage over their fellows from other materials is cost and appearance.Especially these advantages are noticeable when compared with copper or cast iron models.
The advantages of panel structures are as follows:
- Reliability and simplicity of the device. The absence of complex elements minimizes the chance of breakage.
- Ease of installation. Installation is possible on its own. Also available as a bottom connection to the circuit, and the side.
- Good heat dissipationwhich is achieved not only by the large area of the battery, but also by convection.
- Efficiency. Panel models of devices require a minimum amount of coolant, to heat which takes less energy. Savings, in comparison with equipment made of cast iron, can reach 30-40%.
- Presentable appearance- it allows not to spend additional funds for the purchase, installation of decorative and protective screens.
- A wide range of- a rich model range with various dimensions in length, depth, height of devices.
Obviously, the advantages of panel devices are quite a few, which explains their popularity and relevance. But they have significant drawbacks. If this is neglected, the stable and reliable operation of the entire heating system can be compromised.
The weaknesses of the panel-type equipment are as follows:
- The sensitivity of the welds to water hammer. With centralized heating, safe operation is only possible when installing a gearbox, the purpose of which is to mitigate the water hammer.
- Corrosion propensity, especially acutely manifested when the quality of the circulating fluid is low. Cyclical semi-annual lack of water inherent in central heating systems, significantly accelerates corrosion, reducing the life of the radiator.
- During transportation and operation, the instrument panels are easily scratched, which can also provoke acceleration of corrosion.
When choosing radiators from steel of panel type, it is necessary to take into account all the details of their operation, especially when connected to central heating systems.
Features of tubular batteries
Due to the higher cost of tubular batteries made of steel are used much less frequently panel. The design consists of several rows of tubes arranged in parallel. In this case, the rows can be located not only horizontally or vertically, but also tilted.
Characteristics of tubular devices
With the same principle of operation, the methods of manufacturing tubular equipment vary.Some are in the form of sections, like cast iron, which are joined by welding. For others, steel rows of tubes are used, connected in the lower and upper parts by collectors.
Although the design of tubular radiators varies, but at the same time almost all models have similar characteristics. This equipment is best suited for installation in heating systems in low-rise buildings.
The heat output of tubular radiators, in comparison with analogs of the panel type, is greater, but the price is much higher. The following technical characteristics are inherent in tubular radiators:
- working pressure is 15 atmospheres - in the manufacturing process 2 tests are carried out - with air for tightness and water for strength;
- able to withstand a significant temperature coolant - up to 130 degrees;
- a large selection of dimensions - depth from 40 to 290 mm, height from 190 to 3000 mm, and there are no restrictions on length at all;
- for manufacturing use steel with a thickness of 1.32 to 1.5 mm;
- presence of taps for side and bottom connection.
The inner walls of tubular devices are most often coated with a polymer composition. This significantly extends their lifespan.The smooth surface prevents the accumulation of dust, so in terms of hygiene tubular devices compare favorably with aluminum, cast iron and bimetallic counterparts, the cleaning of which causes a lot of inconvenience.
Battery strengths and weaknesses
Tubular models of heating devices are appropriate for use in private homes, where the heating system is characterized by stable and low working pressure in the absence of sharp jumps and water hammer.
The popularity of tubular devices due to a set of their positive qualities:
- high working pressure, ability to withstand hydraulic shocks;
- the lack of gaskets in the welded sections provides high resistance to damage that are mechanical in nature;
- uniform heating of the surface;
- high heat emission;
- smooth surface prevents dust from accumulating;
- ease of installation, the possibility of lower and lateral connection, various placement options;
- when equipped with a thermostat, it is possible to adjust the temperature.
In addition to fasteners, tubular radiators can be equipped with special brackets used as towel rails.
There is also a whole category of models belonging to the category of design radiators - they are used to create the interior. These devices can be produced in the form of frames for mirrors or railings for stairs. Floor-to-ceiling models are successfully used for room zoning.
A lot of positive qualities and excellent characteristics inherent in steel radiators of heating, make their use attractive. Such devices are easy to fit into the interior, they allow you to visually expand the space.
However, do not forget about the shortcomings of tubular models, which are as follows:
- Low resistance to corrosion processes, especially manifested in low quality coolant. The spot welding spots are most susceptible to corrosion.
- Instability to surface mechanical damage
- High price.
As for cost, tubular batteries are by no means a budget solution.Designers most often resort to their installation, who, when implementing their projects, are not constrained in funds.
How to choose the right radiators
One of the important characteristics affecting the choice of heating equipment is power. In addition to it, there are still a number of characteristics that significantly affect the choice of steel batteries, which should be followed when purchasing them.
The size of the device should correspond to the area of the heated room. Without taking into account the individual nuances can be considered that for heating 1 m2The area required is 0.1 kW of thermal energy.
Heat transfer of steel appliances used in the heating system, directly depends on their area. So, the length of the radiator installed under the window should be about 60-70% of the width of the window opening.
When choosing the most suitable model, it is worthwhile to consider such subtleties:
- the most practical are devices with manual or mechanical thermostat;
- Avoid accidents or reduce the risk of flooding to a minimum will allow the installation of a ball valve, which blocks the flow of coolant;
- To ensure the efficiency of the heating system, it is necessary to periodically remove air that accumulates inside. For these purposes, fit Mayevsky's crane.
Another one of the selection criteria is the manufacturer's reputation and additional services offered when purchasing a product. Thus, preference should be given to those firms that provide services for the installation, operation and maintenance of sold devices made of steel.
Steel Device Manufacturers
In the market of heating equipment, steel radiators are represented by models of many manufacturers, but at the same time the manufacturing technology does not practically differ, and the cost may differ slightly.
The price of the product is determined by its size, brand, design. It is often possible to purchase a high-quality domestic device that is not inferior in its characteristics to a brand with a world name.
Among the domestic companies whose products are in stable demand in our market are the following:
Lidea devices are manufactured in Belarus. They are supplied with 1-2-3 panels, the volume of coolant in which is in the range of 0.9-6.55 l and depends on the size.Radiator power with one panel - 2.1 kW, with two panels - 3.9 kW, with three panels - 5.6 kW. Steel thickness 1.2 mm, working pressure 8.9 bar.
Prado heating equipment is produced in Izhevsk. It is equipped with 1-2 panels, the volume of coolant varies in the range of 0.8-5.7 liters. As for power, the radiator with one panel has 1.4 kW, with two panels 2.3 kW. Steel thickness 1.4 mm, working pressure 8.8 bar.
Conrad batteries are manufactured in St. Petersburg. They are equipped with 1-2 panels, the volume of coolant in which - 0.85-5.2 liters and depends on the size. Power device with one panel - 1.35 kW, with two panels - 2.3 kW. Steel thickness 1.4 mm, working pressure 10 bar.
Among European manufacturers of tubular batteries made of steel, German companies, Charlston, Kermi, Arbonia, as well as the Italian company Israp Tesi, have proven themselves well.
Also the most popular are panel heating batteries made in Germany by Kermi and Buderus, the Finnish company PURMO. Practically inferior to them in quality and popularity are Delonghi radiators from Italy, as well as Korado appliances of Czech origin.
Models of panel and tubular radiators of European production have different dimensions and power.Technical characteristics are presented in the passport of each model.
Steel radiators belong to the category of the most demanded heating devices. Due to their presentable appearance, reasonable price and high heat transfer, they are widely used in offices, homes and apartments. The maximum service life of steel radiators is achieved in autonomous heating systems.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Features of installation and possible schemes for connecting heating equipment from steel to video:
The video demonstrates the test of heating devices from well-known manufacturers for strength:
After reviewing the characteristics and features of steel radiators, you can choose the best option for yourself. Moreover, the market for heating equipment is replete with models of domestic and foreign manufacturers. The main thing, in pursuit of the ideal form, is not to pay a couple of times more for a branded product.