Pouring a concrete floor - how to make according to the mind
Pouring a concrete floor - how to make it according to your mind: The need to create a concrete floor arises before finishing in residential and plumbing premises, as well as in garages, sheds, places where an increased load on the surface is expected. Until recently, its only drawback was the low temperature, but with the advent of the "warm floor" system, this problem was successfully solved.
Concrete floor casting technology - the main stages
- Waterproofing and thermal insulation of the base;
- Arrangement of beacons;
- Device of a draft floor;
- Fill screed.
The cost of the entire complex of work depends on the thickness of the layer and the composition of the applied solution, as well as the complexity of the work. The most affordable option is cement-sand screed. The use of reinforcing mesh will cost a little more. The most expensive option is the one in which the top hardened layer is applied, in comparison with the ordinary floor, it is 30-40% more expensive.
If it is necessary to pour a concrete floor over the ground, at the preparatory stage a “zero” marking of the finished floor is made (the level at which the solution will be poured is marked). To do this, from the lowest point on the doorway up lay 1 meter and apply to the walls with a level and ruler horizontal line. Down from this line lay 1 meter and put another horizontal line on all the walls of the room. This will be the level of the fair floor. In the corners we hammer in nails and stretch the cord.
Remove the top layer of soil to a depth of 35 cm below the mark. We carry out soil tamping with the help of available tools or a vibrating machine.
If the building is on a strip foundation, and the distance from the clean level to the ground is more than 35 cm, pour a layer of sand, after which we perform tamping.
We produce bedding
- Pour gravel (5-10 cm) and pour it with water, then compact it.
- We arrange a layer of sand 10 cm thick, spill water and ram.
- Create a layer of crushed stone fraction 40-50 mm (10 cm), which is carefully leveled and compacted, sprinkle the top with sand or crushed stone.
We put waterproofing on the floor
This may be rolled materials, roofing material, membranes or plastic film with a density of 200 microns.After the material is spread over the entire surface of the base, the edges around the perimeter are brought to the “zero” mark and fixed to the walls with adhesive tape. Joints are also taped.
To ensure the proper level of thermal insulation, claydite, extradited polystyrene foam, perlite, foam plastic, basalt wool of the required density or polyurethane are used.
In some cases, hydro- and thermal insulation can be made on a layer of “lean” concrete (liquid consistency solution) in order to eliminate the risk of damage to the insulating materials.
Concrete reinforcement for the floor
Reinforcement is necessary in order to increase the strength of the floor. Reinforced base can withstand increased loads, as they are distributed over the surface evenly.
In the role of reinforcing material can be plastic or metal mesh or frame made of reinforcement (more expensive option). The most commonly used reinforcing mesh 10x10 cm, which is placed on the "chairs" with a height of 2-3 cm. This will allow it to fully manifest its functions.
Installation of beacons on the floor
In the role of guides can be profiles, metal pipes or wooden bars. Guides are stacked on the "buns" of concrete.The location of the "beacons" must meet the "zero" markup, be strictly horizontal. We bring down the formwork-frame made of wood. The height of the formwork is displayed "to zero."
To ensure high strength characteristics, the solution is created on the basis of cement M400-M500. Before you start pouring along the walls and along the perimeter of the projecting structures of the building we lay a damper tape. This will eliminate the tight fit of the solution to the surfaces of the walls.
We make the flooring with concrete, after it we level the mixture and compact it with the help of a deep vibrator until a cement “milk” appears. Using the rule align the solution.
Over the next week we constantly moisten the surface. You can cover the base of the film, in order to avoid its drying and cracking of the concrete. Maximum floor strength will reach 4-5 weeks.
Creating a leveling screed
Often, when pouring a concrete floor, it is not possible to obtain a perfectly flat surface, so you have to apply a screed. The best option would be to use self-leveling compounds.It is enough to pour them on the base and using a special brush to level. Remove air bubbles from the solution using a needle roller. Such a screed dries on average 1 week, after which you can begin to lay the finishing material.
If you are faced with the question of arranging a concrete floor over ceilings, in contrast to pouring mortar over the ground, you do not need to make a filling. The rest of the work is carried out by analogy.
In places of contact of the concrete floor with walls, columns and other structural elements of the building, it is necessary to create insulating expansion joints. The depth of such seams is 1.3 of the thickness of the base.
After cutting, the seams are filled with a special sealant. This event is held before the cracks appear on the floor, but after the concrete has gained the necessary strength.