Physical education of children of early and preschool age
The goal of each mother is to raise a healthy, cheerful, physically perfect child. And all this is not possible without the correct physical development of the baby.
Usually, the period from the very birth until the child enters school is considered to be the early and preschool age. It is no secret that at this age the most active and rapid growth jump occurs, as well as the formation of all the psychological and physical characteristics and qualities of the child, which are very important for him in later life.
Age features of motor activity in babies
5-6 months.From birth, the child needs to create all the conditions that place him in voluntary movements and play activities. Since physical activity is very closely related to the development of the central nervous system in children. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage and stimulate motor movements from the first year of a baby’s life.For example, to give a rattle in his hands so that the child would learn to hold it and consciously release it with his fingers.
6-7 months.By this time, the kids are already like a little motor and they start an independent active activity, they begin to crawl. But do not be afraid if your baby is lazy and independent movement on all fours he does not like. Even those children who miss the crawling stage and immediately go to the walking stage a year or so later also find themselves very physically mobile and quickly catch up with their crawling counterparts.
From 1 year to 2 years.During this period, children improve their development of basic movements and gradually move from walking to running. Also in this period of time, correct posture is formed, the arch of the foot acquires a clearer outline, and skills of coordination of movements and a sense of balance begin to appear.
From 2 years to 3 years.During this period, kids develop such skills as throwing, climbing and crawling. Therefore, various ball games for this age are very entertaining and useful. For example, to develop accuracy and the skill of hitting the target, place a small basket in front of the baby and ask him to throw the ball there.
From 3 to 4 years.As a rule, during this period, babies have movements that resemble jumps. After improving this skill, they move on to jumping forward. Also, three year old children love to actively climb all sorts of steps. Therefore, it is necessary to provide conditions for free climbing, climbing through obstacles.
In order for a child to successfully consolidate all his motor skills, it is recommended to conduct classes in a team of peers. For example, in the children's entertainment complex, where there are slides, sports walls with crossbars, balls, etc. This ensures that the child can perform various movements.
Younger and older preschoolers
From 4 to 5 years.In the early preschool years, there are still global changes in the growth of children. And the chest, body proportions continue to form, and various systems of the body are still very vulnerable. Therefore, physical activity and their intensity should be selected carefully. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that the muscles in children at this age are not yet very strong and the hands and ligaments on them are not very completely developed.
From 5 to 7 years.The physical activity of children of senior and preparatory groups in kindergarten consists of outdoor games, sometimes with elements of sport. They are aimed at increasing endurance, tonic effect on the entire body and contribute to hardening. At this age it is very important to instill in the child an interest in physical education.
Collective games are very helpful for promoting a positive psychological attitude and development for preschoolers. They develop thinking, the ability to act independently and together, and also forms the moral qualities of the child.
The main foundations of proper physical education for children
Only one physical education and physical activity is not enough for the full physical development of the child. In order to comprehensively affect the body and contribute to its improvement, it is necessary to observe a number of factors.
- Hygienic factors. They play an important role in physical education. They include:
- day regimen (maintaining a regular schedule of sleep, wakefulness and nutrition);
- the hygiene of a child’s personal clothing and shoes;
- cleaning the room where the child is daily.
- Full nutrition.For each person is very important to eat right. And the more children need it. Because they are constantly growing and receive through nutrition all the necessary vitamins and macronutrients. The same immunity of the child and the ability of his body to resist various diseases directly depend on what the child eats.
- Healthy sleep. It is necessary to provide the child with the necessary number of hours to sleep and not to neglect it during the daytime, even if he does not want it. Indeed, in a dream there is a recovery of strength, regeneration of damaged cells. It is very important for its growth and normal psychological state. Before bedtime, the child should air the room. To ensure the necessary saturation of the body with oxygen and eliminate the accumulation and spread of viruses and microbes in the room.
- Sun, air and water. As you know the natural forces of nature are best friends to strengthen the immunity of children. Therefore, walking in the fresh air should be organized at any time of the year, at least 2 hours a day. This contributes to the hardening of the body and training of thermoregulation.
- Directly physical activity. It should always be age appropriate and should not be too hard for a child. Therefore, giving the child to the sports section, you should not pursue the achievement of results and general standards too fast. Always be interested in the child if he is too overworked in the classroom. Because in order to maintain the overall fitness of young children of preschool age, it is enough fortifying gymnastics and charging in the mornings and two or three times a week in outdoor games with outdoor games.
Observing all these factors and motivating the various gymnastics and physical activity of the baby, the mother not only strengthens the health and physical endurance of her child, but also contributes to his proper psychological development.