Maternity capital in 2019
In order to increase the demographic situation, the Russian government decided to introduce such an initiative as maternity capital.
These words imply one-time financial assistance for families that have a second child. The program has been operating since 2006 and is quite effective.
However, there are supporters of the abolition of such payments for families. Some believe that the initiative must be canceled for whatever reason.
Others believe that payments should not be made to all families, but only to meet certain criteria. Such discussions excite the public, and also provoke the spread of false rumors. Therefore, in this topic is to understand more.
Will the program work in 2019
So far, the government has not made a clear decision on the extension of the program. Now it expires at the end of 2018. The difficult situation in the country and problems with the budget may cause the government to be forced to abandon such an initiative before better times.
Matters concerning maternity capital have recently been raised among the leadership of the country. However, they concerned the indexation of payments.
So, Dmitry Medvedev made a statement in which he said that this assistance will definitely not be indexed until 2020. In 2020, the government will return to the consideration of increasing one-time assistance for parents.
Many media outlets interpreted such a statement as a direct indication that until 2020, the maternity capital program will definitely work.
However, this is a misconception. The fact is that indexation implies not only an increase in the amount of future payments to children. With the increase in indexation, the state will have to pay additional money to those who have already received the parent capital, but did not manage to spend it.
So, parents who have previously received money, can count on additional income. But only under the condition that the parent capital will not be spent at the time of indexation.
As for the possible cancellation of the program, while the authorities do not respond directly to this question. One thing is clear - the continued existence of such an initiative directly on the economic situation in the country depends.
And since the Russian economy is strongly linked to the cost of oil, it is worth following the news in this area. In the meantime, oil remains relatively cheap, the state is trying with all its might to cut budget spending in order to prevent the collapse of the economy.
In order not to take such a categorical decision as the abolition of such social benefits, officials suggest changing the criteria for participation in the program. Now any family with a second child can claim maternity capital.
During the program, about 8 million certificates were issued. This certainly indicates the benefit, effectiveness and popularity of the program among Russians. But at the same time, the payment of maternity capital remains a rather costly measure for the government.
Experts consider 2 options that can be used as amendments to the current law.
Accrual of assistance to families who are recognized as in need. This option is quite difficult to implement:
- Firstly, it is difficult to imagine the criteria for determining the family in need.Money for a child is needed not only for really poor people, but also for families with average incomes.
- Secondly, experts note that due to such an initiative, the birth rate in the middle stratum of the population will fall and rise to the lowest. The result will be disastrous for the nation. Because of these arguments, this development has a low probability.
Extend the program of maternity capital, but only selectively for certain regions. So, experts will select those areas of the country where the demographic situation is developing the worst. The program will be activated there. However, this option is also doubtful: by stimulating the birth rate in some regions, in others it is possible to wait for the deterioration again.
Experts believe that if the program is extended, then its main parameters will remain unchanged. Drastic changes can hurt and should be discussed and analyzed for a long time until they are adopted. There are no such discussions at the moment, which indicates a low probability of serious changes in the direction of payments.
What can you spend money on
The maternity capital program has some limitations.So, money is not subject to spending until the moment when the child is 3 years old. The only exceptions were families who were forced to pay a mortgage.
Now the rules have changed a bit. Maternity capital can be spent on a down payment on a mortgage, even when the child is under three years old.
However, the remaining expenses are still limited by law until the age of three. You can only spend money on the provision of rehabilitation services if the child was born with disabilities.
Until the age of three, parents do not receive the money and they are kept on the account of the government. It should be noted that with frequent indexation of payments, such a waiting period was even profitable - then the amount expected by the parents grew in the account.
Now, the indexation is frozen until 2020, so those who received a certificate in 2017, will not receive an increase in maternity capital. The amount of one-time payment at the moment is about 453 thousand rubles.
Most often, the money received from the state is spent on the purchase of new housing. As mentioned above, maternity capital can be used as a down payment on a mortgage. However, in addition to this possibility, there are other options for spending maternity capital:
- payment of education of the child in any educational institution;
- transfer of the amount of maternity capital to the funded pension of the mother of the child;
- treatment, rehabilitation and maintenance of a child with a disability.
However, officials understand that the list is quite limited and the family may have other significant needs. Therefore, they are now actively discussing the introduction of additional potential costs of maternity capital.
It is proposed to add the following items:
- buying a car of domestic production;
- improvement of living conditions by repairing a house or apartment;
- land acquisition;
- one-time payment of part of the parent capital;
- monthly allowance for families in need;
- the possibility of starting a business for the mother of the child.
If this initiative is adopted, the parents of the child in 2019 will be able to spend money on a wider range of things the family needs. As we see from this list, each item is thought out and can be really important for a family with two children.
Already, the authorities provide the possibility of a one-time payment of the money. However, its size is small and is about 25 thousand.Therefore, it can be argued that such a program to stimulate an increase in the birth rate is still being improved.