Do-it-yourself installation of a septic tank "Tank": instructions for installation and maintenance
Solve the problem of disposal of runoff water owners of private houses often have their own. Therefore, ready-made modular structures are becoming increasingly popular. Self-made installation of septic tank
The tank allows you to quickly, inexpensively and with minimal labor costs to organize non-volatile autonomous sewage system.
Device and principle of operation
Traditionally, in the private sector, a drain well or a pit without bottom is arranged. However, this method with the current standard of living with the frequent use of chemical detergents is unacceptable. The ecosystem of the site and the whole neighborhood suffers. Unpleasant smell - the usual drawback of such a structure.
Installing an airtight storage tank will only help with occasional residence.Otherwise, the costs of the services of the nightman, especially if there is a shower and washing machine in the house, become substantial.
The septic tank is a local structure, which is driven into the ground on its own site. In fact, it is an underground tank-settler, in which the mechanical and then the biological purification of the effluent takes place. After a septic tank, the degree of purification of water reaches 75%, so it is imperative to install an additional device for purification - filtration field, infiltration tank, filter well
A septic tank is a cast container made of polypropylene, the internal volume of which is divided into three sections. The chambers are interconnected by internal overflows, the latter is equipped with a powerful ecofiltration system.
The device is lightweight and durable at the same time. Thick, elastic, ribbed walls withstand the pressure of the soil, while not deformed. At the top there are service hatches. The design of the tank is block-modular, which allows you to dial any desired amount of drainage by the serial connection of several devices.
Each septic chamber performs a specific task. The first is the reception room - all the drains from the house get into it and undergo primary cleaning. As a result of settling, heavy particles sink to the bottom and form a layer of sludge, and light fatty and organic fractions float upwards. Conditionally clean water from the middle region falls into the next section. Here the process is similar - there is a completion.
In the last chamber, the liquid passes through a floating module - a filter made of polymer fibers, in which colonies of anaerobic bacteria are established. Under their influence the decomposition of waste occurs, the process residues settle on the bottom.
The manufacturer recommends cleaning the septic tank from sludge once a year.
For the complete purification of water, the system must be supplemented with a soil purification device. Since the installation of a septic tank Tank is most often done by hand, the most convenient structures are industrial-made infiltrators.They allow you to organize a sewage treatment system in the shortest possible lines and do not require complex installation.
Structurally, the infiltrator is an oblong tank with ribbed, solid walls and without a bottom. Outwardly, it resembles a cover. From the ends provided pipes - input and output. The latter is used to connect several modules in series or vent pipe. There are models without an outlet - they have a vent in the upper part of the case.
The filtering layer is a pad of sand and crushed stone or gravel on which the body of the device is mounted. Passing through such a cleansing natural filter, all remaining nerazdelazivshiysya impurities and substances are deposited, and water enters the soil, the purity is comparable to the technical.
Advantages and disadvantages of septic tanks Tank
Among the owners of houses in cottage and holiday villages, Septic tanks Tank are in constant demand due to their merits:
- Robust and reliable monolithic construction;
- The possibility at any time to increase the performance of the cleaning system by including an additional septic tank and infiltrators in the circuit (thanks to the block-modular device);
- High effluent treatment in combination with infiltrates;
- Long operational life;
- The work of the septic tank is carried out autonomously, without any energy sources;
- The small size of the containers and their light weight allow for installation with their own hands;
- Low labor costs during installation;
- No need for frequent maintenance - once a year, it is enough to use the services of a vacuum truck and pump the sludge;
- Affordable cost - these septic tanks belong to the average price category among similar products on the market.
High-quality plastic, from which the container is made, is not subject to corrosion and soil erosion, water erosion and cracking. Resistant to aggressive wastewater. Therefore, the sewage system with such a septic tank has a long service life of at least 50 years.
There are drawbacks to tanks Tank:
- It is necessary to complete the purification of the fluid leaving the septic tank;
- Improper installation and operation lead to an unpleasant odor from the sewer;
- With a close location of groundwater requires the installation of additional drainage systems.
It is necessary to consider the location of groundwater throughout the year. The spring flood can become a serious annual problem when the filtering layer of the infiltrator is simply filled with liquid and will pose a threat of contamination of the groundwater.
Therefore, in areas with a typical seasonal appearance of flood waters, an elementary drainage well should be provided with a submersible pump for pumping out excess fluid and dumping it onto the relief (into the drainage ditch).
How to choose a suitable model?
When choosing elements of the wastewater treatment system, the number of people permanently living in the house becomes the determining factor. For each tenant, the norms need 200 liters per day. Therefore, the minimum performance of a septic tank for a small family of three people is 600 liters per day.
In combination with septic tanks, Triton-400 infiltrators are used.Their number is also selected taking into account the daily water consumption. The absorption capacity of soils is also taken into account - for clay representatives the number of buildings is doubled.
Septic tanks are available in different versions, each of which is supplied with the manufacturer's recommendations:
- Tank 1- suitable for servicing three permanently residing people and a daily volume of wastewater up to 600 liters. It has dimensions of 1.2 mx 1 mx 1.7 m, weight - 75 kg. A chain with it is mounted one infiltrator when installed on peat and sandy sediments and two - on clay soils.
- Tank 2- handles up to 800 liters of waste per day, can serve up to four people. Dimensions - 1.8 m × 1.2 m × 1.7 m, the weight of the installation - 130 kg. Two infiltrators go to it, four are installed on clay rocks.
- Tank 2.5- daily output is one thousand liters, dimensions - 2 m × 1.2 m × 1.85 m. Suitable for four to five people. Weight - 140 kg. The number of infiltrators is similar to the installation Tank 2.
- Tank 3- septic tank provides water disposal in the amount of 1200 l, serving five to six family members.The weight of the installation is 150 kg, dimensions - 2.2 m × 1.2 m × 2 m. In areas with peat and sandy soils, three infiltrators are connected to it, and six in sandy loams and loams.
- Tank 4- set for the discharge of wastewater from one or more buildings and maintenance of up to nine permanent residents. Performance - up to 1800 liters per day. The weight of the septic tank is 230 kg, overall dimensions - 3.6 m × 1 m × 1.7 m. Together with it, four infiltrators are installed on the sand and peat, eight - on clay and loams.
If the amount of wastewater constantly exceeds the recommended one, then insufficiently purified water will merge into the ground and the site's ecosystem may suffer. Too much septic tank will not be economical and will require more space. It is worthwhile to choose a reservoir with a higher performance if there are often guests in the house or it is planned to replenish the number of tenants.
Step-by-step Installation Instructions
Installation of elements of autonomous cleaning system is simple. However, it has its own subtleties, so before starting work it is necessary to carefully study the installation instructions for a septic tank, infiltration tanks, sewage pipelines and strictly follow the technology.
Stages of work include preparatory, land works, directly installation, connection and backfilling.
Step # 1 - Preparatory Work
To avoid problems during operation, it is necessary to take a thorough approach to the preparation of the site, the necessary materials, tools and structural elements.
First choose the place of installation. Any modern septic tank is a sealed and durable design. However, the cleaning system poses some environmental risk, since the possibility of pipe rupture or depressurization of joints cannot be ruled out.
Therefore, the placement plan taking into account sanitary standards:
- Sewage elements are removed from the water intake point at a distance of 20-50 m (depending on the type of soil), from the water supply system - by 10 m to eliminate the potential for contamination of the source of drinking water;
- The minimum distance to the house is 5 m, so that the water filtered and absorbed into the soil layers does not undermine the foundation, the maximum is 15 m, otherwise it will be difficult to observe the slope required for the gravity flow
- Provide free travel to the place of installation of the tank, as the septic tank must be cleaned;
- It is forbidden to install sewage treatment plants close to the boundary of the site - the minimum distance from the neighbor’s fence should be 2 m, from the public road with heavy traffic - 5 m, from the passage - 2 m;
- The distance from the pipeline - at least 5 m;
- Do not install cleaning products near plants with a strong root system - the distance from trees should not be less than 3 m, from shrubs - 1 m.
Taking into account these rules, the site is marked for the location of all elements of the cleaning system, and it is planned to lay a highway from the house. It is advisable to mount the pipeline in a straight line - blockages are formed at the turning points. If you can not do without them, then at the points of change of direction audit (viewing) wells will be equipped to ensure the possibility of cleaning.
Determine the depth of groundwater and the type of sediment in the area. The depth of the pits, the number of infiltrators and the need for additional drainage elements will depend on this.
Prepare the necessary materials. For the installation of a septic tank will need:
- coarse sand;
- gravel (crushed stone);
- plastic construction mesh;
For highly located groundwater it is necessary to exclude the possibility of pushing the container to the surface. To do this, prepare a concrete slab or a concrete solution to fill it in place.
Step # 2 - preparation of pits and land works
Prepare a pit under the septic tank. Its width and length should exceed the corresponding overall dimensions of the tank by 25-30 cm.
The depth is calculated taking into account the height of the tank, the thickness of the sand cushion, the presence of a concrete screed and the provision of the required slope of the sewer pipeline.The depth of the upper wall of the hull relative to the level of the day surface should not exceed 1 m, but at the same time be sufficient for effective insulation of the tank.
At the bottom of the pit, sand is poured in a layer of 30-40 cm and tamped tightly. In order to separate the soil of natural occurrence and the bulk sand cushion stack geofabric. If the groundwater level is low, this is sufficient. Otherwise, it is required to lay a reinforced concrete slab over the sand cushion, or to make a concrete screed.
Metal hinges should be laid in the concrete slab (coupler), the distance between which is greater than the dimensions of the hull. If there are no loops, you can install anchor eye bolts.
Next, you need to dig a pit for infiltrators. The minimum distance from it to the pit for a septic tank is 2 m. The distance from the side walls of the pit to the walls of the device is 50 cm. The dimensions of the pit depend on the number of infiltrators installed.
The walls of the prepared pit are closed with geotextiles,A plastic construction mesh is laid on the bottom, and 40 cm of a mixture consisting of gravel (crushed stone) and coarse sand is laid on it.
Under the laying of pipelines arrange a trench from the house to the septic tank and from the septic tank to the infiltrator. Their width should exceed the diameter of the sewer by 40 cm (20 each side). Their bottom is also covered with sand - 10-20 cm thick, it should not be strongly compacted.
Step # 3 - Install Infiltrators
Installation of the tank is best done using a crane-manipulator, since it will be necessary to install the septic tank body without displacements and distortions, exactly in the center of the prepared excavation. Lighter models can be gently lowered with the help of ropes or cloths - this requires the involvement of at least three assistants.
Competent drainage and the shape of the reservoir preclude its ascent under the action of groundwater. However, in areas with characteristic sharp flooding of the soil (seasonal, as a result of river flooding or after heavy rains), it is recommended to anchor the septic tank. To this end, retaining straps are thrown over the upper surface of the body and securely fasten them in the hinges of the metal fixture.
In the pit prepared for infiltrators put the required number of devices. On the last case in the chain mount vent riser.
Step # 4 - Connecting the elements to the sewer house
Lay the pipeline from the sewer outlet pipe from the house to the septic tank and from the septic tank to the infiltrators. It is recommended to use rubber connecting cuffs for connection, so that the connections are tight, but not rigid. This will save plastic sewers from cracking and destruction during seasonal displacements of soil layers.
The sewer line must have a slope from the house to the last element of the system. Its optimum value for a pipeline with a diameter of 110 mm is 2 cm for each running meter. In this case, a smooth and silent runoff of sewage is guaranteed and the accumulation of solid fractions and the formation of blockages are practically eliminated.
At the section of the highway leading to the septic tank, it is necessary to install a ventilation riser to discharge gases resulting from decomposition. It can be attached to the building from the outside, is displayed through the ventilation system of the house, or go out in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir.
Step # 5 - Backfilling and Warming the Highway
Clean the cleaning devices manually only to eliminate the risk of damage. To move the containers can not pick up their sharp and piercing objects.
Ditches and trenches are filled with mixtures based on coarse sand — a cement-sand mixture is prepared for a septic tank at a ratio of 1: 5; sand is mixed with soil for an infiltrator and pipes. Such an environment will help reduce the load on structural elements during seasonal displacements of soil layers and soil heaving.
The pit with the tank is filled in stages - evenly distribute the prepared mixture in layers of 30 cm from all sides of the tank and carefully compact them. To exclude deformation of the septic tank, they gradually fill it with clean water - it should be ensured that its level is higher than the level of the sand-cement layer.
The pit for infiltrators is also uniformly filled and tamped.Trenches above the pipeline are compacted only from the sides. No tamper is produced above the nozzles.
Cover the elements of the system with prepared sand mixtures to the level of 10-15 cm above their upper surfaces. Next, the entire highway, including the pipeline, is covered with insulation to protect against freezing. For this you can use both rolled materials (izolon) and sheet materials (penoplex).
Fill trenches and trenches with primer to the surface. It should be borne in mind that even a thick layer of sedimentary rocks will not protect the septic tank from the load arising from the passage of vehicles over its installation site.
If it is not possible to avoid such situations, then a reinforced concrete slab with a thickness of 250 mm or more should be mounted above the tank.
Rules of operation and maintenance
Septic tanks Tank does not require specific maintenance and invitations of technical specialists, unpretentious in operation.They quietly tolerate almost any type of domestic waste - it is allowed to enter into the sewage system leftover food (while washing dishes), toilet paper, a small amount of cleaning and detergents.
However, some rules of treatment are still worth observing.
- Once a year to make cleaning of solid waste deposited at the bottom of the settling chambers. When using biopreparations with bacteria that thin a sediment, the frequency of such a procedure is reduced - pumping is carried out every 3-5 years.
- Antibacterial detergents, alcohol, alkalis and acids, antifreeze, chemicals, and medical preparations should not be allowed to enter the system. Such substances kill the bacteria needed to clean the wastewater.
- Do not let aggressive bacteria enter the container. Contained in pickles, mushrooms, rotting food and water, which is washed household filters. They interfere with the proper operation of the septic tank and can cause its complete failure.
- It is impossible to keep open the maintenance hatch for a long time in winter.
- If tenants live in the house only in the summer season, then the system should be mothballed for the winter.To do this, it should be filled with clean water in the amount of 50-70% of the total volume of the tank. The liquid will allow to preserve the vital activity of the colony of bacteria, compensate for the load of the soil on the body and prevent the septic tank from floating up.
Following these recommendations, the owners of the house will be able to use the autonomous sewer system for many years, without the cost of repairing or replacing individual devices.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video clip from the manufacturer shows how to correctly install a septic tank with an infiltrator:
Professional installation of a septic tank, infiltration tank and drainage well:
Conduct an independent installation of wastewater treatment systems should be based on the recommendations of the manufacturer and professionals. In this case, its uninterrupted operation and comfort of residents will be guaranteed.