Infrared heating of a private house: an overview of modern infrared heating systems
Efficiency and profitability are key parameters when choosing a heating system. The price of energy resources is quite high, and their reasonable owners of apartments and private houses use their reasonable efforts. These two parameters underlie the development of an innovative infrared heating system.
On what principle the system works, is it possible to adjust the infrared heating of a private house with your own hands, we consider in the article.
The principle of operation of infrared heating
In nature, infrared radiation enters the spectral region of electromagnetic waves emitted by the main "star" of our system - the sun. Due to the invisible wave spectrum emitted by it on our planet, it is able to develop all life.
Scientists infrared radiation, which is referred to as "thermal", is divided into three components, highlighting the near, middle and far spectrum.
The most effective for heating and the safest for living organisms are electromagnetic oscillations, immediately following the visible red side of the middle spectrum.
The range of wavelengths of radiation, called "rays of life," ranges from 8 to 14 microns. In a number of sources, the "life-giving" interval is slightly increased: from 6 to 20 microns. However, even these discrepancies in the testimony are not critical.
It is the long-wave spectrum, close in value to the radiation of the human body, that is involved in the development of equipment and the arrangement of the heating system with infrared heaters.
Infrared installations can be considered a kind of mini-sun. The only difference from the natural "luminaries" is that they will warm up the space constantly, regardless of the weather conditions outside the room. Such installations in households operate from a 220V network.
TEN, the main component of the device, propagates light waves. Thanks to the reflector during the operation of the equipment that object is heated to which the device is directed.
The role of "receivers" and then "radiators" of heat can be performed by any objects in the room: ceramic and stone objects, wooden and glass surfaces, living organisms.
Objects receive heat or transfer it to a nearby space. In the process of equipment operation, the surface of interior objects in the radiation zone is warmer than ambient air by 7-10 degrees.
Heated by infrared rays is perfectly combined with other traditional methods of heating, so that with minimal effort it is easy to organize in any room "island of heat" - a zone of increased comfort.
As at the household level, and on an industrial scale, this type of heating is convenient to use as an auxiliary or emergency heating.Heat losses during its application do not exceed on average even 10%.
Advantages and disadvantages of the system
The heating system based on infrared radiation in comparison with convection heating methods has a number of undeniable advantages:
- Wide scope. Infrared heating panels are used for heating all types of premises. With their help, they increase the temperature in warehouses, livestock farms, in utility rooms and in garages.
- High heating rate.The feeling of thermal comfort from the moment the equipment is turned on comes in a matter of minutes. This is due to the fact that air does not absorb thermal radiation, and energy is consumed for its intended purpose with minimal losses.And even after turning off the device for some time, it will continue to radiate heat.
- Silent work.The operation of heaters is not accompanied by any vibrations and noises, and in the process of heating no combustion products are emitted.
- Health safety for households.By nature, infrared heat is as close to the sun as possible. It is the most comfortable for a person. The devices used do not emit an unpleasant odor, do not emit toxins and harmful substances, being absolutely safe for human health.
Heaters of this type are not afraid of moisture. Due to this, they can be safely used for arranging the “heat islands” in the open air, applying for heating a garden arbor and a veranda.
Unlike spiral heaters, infrared systems do not burn oxygen from the air and do not overdry it. Heat is distributed in the room evenly without accumulation in the upper half, closer to the ceiling, of the room.
Yes, and in the process of heating does not participate convection currents of air, which are able to raise dust. Thanks to this, it is possible to maintain a constant microclimate, providing conditions for comfortable living of the household.
Heaters are placed in the floor, ceiling or simply attached to existing floors. They are often used in the arrangement of the system "smart home".
An argument in favor of the modern system is the fact that in recent years, infrared saunas are gaining more and more popularity among lovers of spa treatments.
According to the research of Japanese scientists, they are an excellent prevention of many diseases. Penetrating the skin of a person, the rays warm the blood vessels, thereby contributing to the rapid spread of heat throughout the body.
But the infrared heating system is not without flaws. These include:
- Infrared rays have a point effect. Therefore, within one spacious room in one place it may be too warm, in another, on the contrary - it is cool.
- Since infrared rays do not heat the air, but objects, then in the process of heating a room, the interior of which is made up of equipment, a subtle smell of plastic can appear.
- In aesthetic terms, such suspended heaters are not always able to successfully fit into the overall interior design.
Quite energy efficient infrared heating can not be fully considered cost-effective. First, the equipment itself will initially have to invest a significant amount.
Secondly, to achieve rational energy consumption with its help, it will be necessary to spend money on meeting a number of key requirements. For example: the insulation of a building, the arrangement of heat-reflecting reflective screens.
But if all the necessary installation conditions are met, the efficiency of the system is able to reach 95%. And in order to maintain a comfortable microclimate it is enough that the film coating occupies 50% of the surface of the walls or the floor.
Varieties of infrared heaters
Modern industry for infrared heating systems produces two types of heaters: film version and panel performance.
Differences between film and panel radiators only in design features. At arrangement of ceiling infrared heating apply both film radiators, and panels.
But for floor heating is used only equipment of the film type.
No. 1 - infrared panel heaters
Flat heating panels are good because they allow you to keep the living space area at the same room height. It is very convenient when arranging rooms with low walls and sloping ceilings.
Structurally, such devices include the following main elements:
- Heating element- a heating element;
- panelreceiving heat from the heating element and transmitting energy to heated objects;
- insulationlocated on the back side, preventing the loss of thermal energy;
- plate- reflecting electromagnetic waves from the back side of the device;
- cable entry housing, terminal strip, etc.
Ceramics, quartz or tungsten can act as a material for the manufacture of heating elements. The material used largely determines the power and efficiency of the equipment as a whole.
On top of the heater is covered with a decorative coating, which performs the function of the emitter of infrared waves.
Depending on the method of installation panels are built-in and mounted. The first ones are plasterboard constructions with thermal insulation applied on them and built-in graphite thread.
The body of the hinged panels are made of heat-resistant plastic or glass, and the heating element is covered with a screen made of ceramic or anodized aluminum.
Such heaters are on sale in the form of traditional panels and more refined models decorated under a stone or a natural tree.Exquisite design products are able to make a worthy addition to the interior.
No. 2 - film type radiators
Film heaters are most often used, if necessary, to organize zone heating. For example, when arranging a loggia, arranging a working area or creating a corner for relaxing on the veranda.
Coatings of this type can be placed both on the floor and on the ceiling with walls. The only exceptions are stretch ceilings made of fabric or PVC canvases. For suspended ceilings manufacturers offer infrared radiators of cassette type.
The main material of the system is a thin layer of graphite deposited on a thermoplastic thin film or parallel paved carbon fibers, which, when heated, produce heat flux.
Film coatings consist of interchangeable modules, so that in the event of a separate section being disabled, it will not be difficult to replace it with new ones without violating the integrity of the system.
To make the film heating systems more presentable, some craftsmen equip them with decor.
To do this, a plasterboard frame is first constructed above the coating, on top of which a decorative finish is applied. The only condition is that it does not contain metal.
In advanced versions, infrared heating film systems are mounted under a layer of decorative trim.
Decorative decorated film heaters are among the low-power devices and therefore are used mainly for local heating of one of the sections of the room.
Classification by location method
Infrared heating devices on the market in a wide range. According to the method of arrangement of the heating elements, they can be divided into three groups: floor, wall and ceiling.
Option # 1 - floor heaters
Floor coverings are modular materials, inside which flat heating elements are laid.The coating is available in rolls. For mounting it is cut into pieces of the required sizes.
The material is laid directly on the prepared base floor. In the process of laying avoid placing overlapping panels and try to maintain a distance of 10-15 cm to the walls.
Over the floor infrared panels can be laid:
- ceramic tiles.
The most successful combination is obtained when using ceramic tiles as a floor covering. A little inferior in this respect laminate. And the greatest shielding of IR radiation creates carpet and linoleum.
Option # 2 - wall and ceiling appliances
In comparison with floor heating systems, the choice of ceiling and wall appliances is wider.In addition to the traditional panels, there are also designer embedded models of ceiling emitters.
They can be mounted in suspended ceilings. On sale they are presented in different sizes and colors.
Ceiling models of infrared emitters are located at a height of 3 meters and above. With this arrangement, the thermal ceiling goes down and diverges slightly to the sides.
Rushing down, the rays first of all heat the flooring. Due to this, the temperature at the feet is always a couple of degrees higher than in the head area.
To prevent heat leakage to the street, the panels are not placed opposite the doors and window openings.
Among the wall emitters separately stands out the baseboard system. They are narrow long structures. Systems are installed around the perimeter of the room, placing instead of the usual plastic or wooden plinths.
When choosing the location of the panels, you should avoid recreation areas where there is a high probability of a direct impact on the household. For example: at the level of a sofa or bed.
Otherwise, the beams directed at right angles will overheat and dry out the skin, causing discomfort to the residents and guests of the house.
The coverage area of directional emitters is one of the main characteristics and is usually indicated in the passport to the product.
Infrared heater manufacturers
The production of IR equipment is engaged in many companies around the world. Among foreign manufacturers, the most popular are:
- "STIEBEL ELTRON"- German company that manufactures products of traditionally high quality;
- "FENIX TRADING"- The Czech company pays close attention to the issue of energy efficiency of the products produced;
- "AIR COMFORT"- the Italian concern is counting on the creation of a safe heating system of a new generation;
- "FRICO"- Swedish manufacturer guarantees Scandinavian quality and places high demands on the design of products.
Domestic manufacturers are represented by such brands as"Bilyuks","Peony","EcoLine",Almak. The quality of the products of these brands is not much inferior to imported counterparts.
But It is worth noting that not all of them are domestic appliances for infrared heating supplied complete with brackets.
In addition, judging by the reviews, the work of domestic devices is often accompanied by a slight crackle, which can be annoying especially at night.
We should also be wary of Chinese-made products. Some companies put a sign on their productsCE"Meaning"China Export».
Visually, this abbreviation is similar to the sign of compliance with European requirements "CE"Meaning"Conformite europeenne».
The only difference is that in the second case, the font density is slightly wider and the letters are located a little further from each other. Therefore, in addition to studying the labeling require certificates of conformity.
Criteria for proper equipment selection
The main thing to be guided by when choosing heating elements is their constructive solution and operational parameters.
To calculate the optimal power, use the classical formula, taking as a basis that an average of 1.2 kW is required for heating 10 meters of space.
There are also commercially available mobile units that are conveniently used for temporary heating, placing rooms in the right place and taking them to the site if necessary. They work both from electricity and gas.
If we compare floor and ceiling models, the difference between them will be insignificant, because in any case, the floor and the lower part of the walls will first be heated, and the warm air will still rise up.
For this reason, look only at how convenient it will be to place the equipment on the ceiling or floor.
The models with a built-in thermal sensor are convenient in operation: when the temperature in the room drops below the set mark, the equipment automatically turns on, and when it reaches the set value, it turns off.
Preference is also given to devices whose design allows you to adjust the slope of the radiation direction.
In general, the choice of heating elements must be guided by the parameters of the product, the materials from which the house is built, the presence of a different type of heating system, and, of course, its financial capabilities.
But do not be tempted to products with unreasonably low cost. In an effort to reduce the cost of production, some manufacturers do it to the detriment of quality, saving on contacts and using low-quality wires.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
A good example of the heating system:
IR film heating: for and against:
Video review of ceramic heating panels:
The infrared system is a safe heating technology of the new generation, which with the right approach can be an economical and rational option. Moreover, both as a zone and as the main heating of a private house.