How to find water for a well: an overview of the most effective ways to find water on the site
Do you want to ensure uninterrupted water supply of suburban ownership, which is far from the benefits of civilization and are considering possible options? Agree that to bring water in sufficient quantities to the country - an expensive undertaking, especially since some sites are located at a considerable distance from the city. Or have you already decided and decided to build, but do not know how to find water for the well?
We will help you to deal with the subtleties of the search - the article presents various methods and methods that are in demand among owners of country plots. Also selected video recommendations and colorful photos, which clearly demonstrate the material presented.
Therefore, it will be easy for you to find water on the spot. And you will be able to secure your usual living conditions and enough water for personal use andconstruction needs.
Aquifers and location in the ground
Under the ground there is water, but it is not so easy to find. You can, of course, dig a hole at random in the hope of accidentally stumble upon an aquifer, but the result is likely to be disappointing.
Meanwhile, it happens that if you didn’t miss a literal two meters, the desired goal would have been achieved.
After all, the water in the ground is between the layers of soil, which it is not able to erode because of its impermeable composition, which is based on clay and rock.
Clay layers are interspersed with sandy layers, gravel and pebble deposits. They contain clean water. It is up to such an aquifer and it is necessary to get to those who decided to dig a well on their site.
It should be noted that the aquifer is not the same in geometrical parameters throughout its length. Somewhere the sand layer becomes thinner, and in other places it becomes wider and deeper.
The waterproof layer is also not the same: in one place it is horizontal, and in another it can bend or even bend. In the places of curvature of the waterproof layer, the largest volumes of sand saturated with water are stored.
Impact of depth on water quality
If you dig a well in the place where the water is exactly located, the aquifer can be found even just some two or two and a half meters from the earth's surface. Knowledgeable people call this water layer a top layer and do not use for drinking.
Proximity to the surface is an unkind sign, because water has accumulated due to the melting of snow, the infiltration of rain flows and the waters of nearby water bodies.
The quality of the water in it leaves much to be desired, because there is a high probability of seepage of sewage and other dirt.
In addition, the mirror of such water, as a rule, is unstable. A well with a top layer can dry out completely at the time of summer heat and be filled in the season of thawing snow or autumn rains.
And this means that the water supply sources that feed on watering will also be empty, and summer residents will be left without water during the hot summer season, when it is especially needed.
Under such circumstances, it is better to forget about harvest plans. After all, until late autumn, water in the well is not expected.
Therefore, we will seek water deeper. Experts believe that high-quality water is not too deep, just 15 meters from the soil level. In the sands, the water in which is clean and tasty.
The sandy layer in which water is “stored” is a natural filter. Passing moisture through himself, he cleans it from the remnants of dirt and harmful elements.
Observation when searching
The ability to note and analyze the collected information has never been superfluous.
It was in this way that our ancestors found water, who were not yet armed with the achievements of science and technology. What exactly the facts and phenomena of nature will help us in the search for water?
Observation # 1 - summer fogs
Fogs may appear on the site in the warm season. It happens this natural phenomenon or in the early morning, or closer to the evening.
If you observe fog on your plot, pay attention to its density: it will be the highest in the place where the water is closest to the soil surface.
The cause of this fog is the evaporation of water, which is located underground. In one place, as usual fog, he will not stand. Moisture fumes may be swirling or moving very low above the ground.
Observation # 2 - Animal Behavior
Unlike people, animals are well aware of exactly where the underground water is located. It is a pity that they can not tell us about it. Yes, they will not be able to tell, but please share your knowledge.
Observing the behavior of domestic and wild animals and birds, we can get all the necessary information:
- Dog.A dog is a friend of a man and it will surely help him in finding water for a well. In the heat, dogs are always looking for an opportunity to cool their bodies, so they dig holes where it is cooler. These are the places we are looking for.
- Horse. Thirsty, the horse beats his hoof in the place where there is water under the ground.
- Harvest mouse.But the mice love where it is dry. They will never make their nests near high humidity places. It is better to climb a tree or any building, towering above the soil level.
- Domestic bird.The hen does not rush where it is wet, and geese, on the contrary, choose for their nests the intersection of underground aquifers.
Even the midges feel the closeness of water. If you look at her behavior at dusk, when the summer heat has already receded, then we will see columns of insects circling in the air just above those places where it is the coolest - where there is what we need under the ground.
Observation # 3 - plant species
Who and know about the presence or absence of water in the area, if not plants? It is not surprising that they are used as indicators.
If your site feels good blackberry, buckthorn, lingonberry, bearberry, bird cherry, wood lice and wild rosemary, then it makes sense to look for an aquifer - it is always present.
Look closely at the birch: its modest growth and knotty trunk with curvature reveals the presence of a nearby watercourse.Conifer trees also prefer to grow where it is dry.
By the way, the presence of close groundwater - it is not always good for gardeners. After all, cherries and apples prefer moderate humidity: their overwetting can provoke tree diseases and fruit rotting.
Observation # 4 - help from friends and neighbors
If your site is part of a horticultural society or you have neighbors nearby, be sure to chat with them. As a rule, they have already solved the problems that you are fighting today.
It is very possible that they ordered a geodetic survey of the area or are going to do it.
Try to find out not only the current state of the local water intake, but also the fluctuations of the water level throughout the year, as well as the composition of the water.
Agree that it is not too pleasant to find your site in spring with submerged groundwater. Get vital information for you in a timely manner.
Practical search techniques
When the observation stage is over, and the neighbor said,that he bought the site already with a well, it is time to practically search for water layers using standard or non-standard methods.
Method # 1 - using glass containers
Finding the right amount of glass jars of the same size is not a problem for those who occasionally do home canning. If you do not have cans, buy them, they will definitely need them sooner or later.
Glass jars of the same size should be dug up to a depth of at least 5 cm throughout the entire area. The experiment lasts a day. The next morning, until the sun rises, you can dig out and turn over the dishes.
We are interested in those banks that have condensate. Its more in banks located above aquifers.
Method # 2 - Use of a hygroscopic material.
It is known that salt is hygroscopic, that is, it is able to absorb moisture even from air. The same properties and has red brick, crushed into powder.Silica gel is another material that is perfect for our purposes.
For the experiment, we will need several clay pots that are not coated with glaze. Choose a day when it has not been raining for a long time and we hope that it will not be expected in the next 24 hours.
Fall asleep material in pots and weigh the resulting "devices". The pots are better numbered, and the data recorded. We wrap each pot with non-woven material and bury it at a depth of half a meter into the ground in different places of the plot.
A day later we dig up the bookmarks and re-weigh. The heavier the pot has become, along with its contents, the closer to the place of its laying the aquifer is located.
Almost scientific methods of biolocation
Despite all the skepticism of professional drillers, dowsing is used to this day and gives good results. Consider two ways to do this water search.
No. 1 - Electrodes and aluminum wire
For this experiment, we will need two pieces of aluminum wire 40 cm long. Fold 10 cm on each piece at a right angle for the handles.For the remaining 25 cm you will need a hollow tube, for example, from an elderberry, with a core removed.
We insert the wire into the elder tubes so that it can freely spin inside the channel. By the way, instead of elderberry, you can use viburnum, willow or hazel.
We take in each hand one tube so that their ends look in opposite directions. We go along the site in the direction from north to south. Elbows should be pressed to the body. The frame, not tightly clamped in fists, serves as an extension of the hand.
In the place where there is an aquifer, the wires turn around and converge to the middle. It is possible that water may be on your right or on your left, then both tubes will “look” in this direction.
When you pass the aquifer, the pipes will again turn in different directions. To make sure that you are not mistaken, walk again over the place where the tubes are closed.
This time in the direction perpendicular to the previous one (from east to west). If the closure is repeated, the right place is found and it is here that the well should be dug.
No. 2 - willow vine at the heart of the search
We need a willow, on which there is a branch, as if split into two parts, forming an angle of 150 degrees between them (approximately). This is actually a finished “frame” - the main tool that will be used by us.
But the frame can not be exploited immediately. Be patient, let the wood dry first.
The finished frame is taken at the ends of the branches so that the “beak”, located in the middle, looks upwards. With this vine and you need to slowly go around the whole area. Above the location of the aquifer, the vine "bite", that is, the middle part of the frame will be directed downwards.
Not every person knows how to properly handle the vine, so dowsing is the lot of the few. For those who are ready to experience themselves, we remind you that the most accurate values can be obtained using the frame:
- in the morning from 6 to 7 o'clock;
- after lunch from 4 to 5 o'clock;
- in the evening from 8 to 9 o'clock;
- at night from 12 to 1 o'clock.
Such studies bring results. Here only the water found may turn out to be upper course or underground communications passing under the site and collecting condensate.
Water search by drilling
The final result can be obtained by the method of exploration drilling. He will put an end to all your doubts. For drilling wells you will need a garden auger.
Since we have already discussed the merits of water that is dangerously close to the earth's surface, we will have to drill at a depth of at least 6 meters.
Suppose an aquifer is found. But before you start digging a long-awaited well, you need to make sure that you find good quality water. To do this, send it for analysis to the sanitary epidemiological station.
If the results you are satisfied, we can assume that the search for a place under the well completed.
The most expensive and, at the same time, the most reliable way is to drill holes and punch wells using professional equipment.Using it, we will get the following information:
- soil thickness at the site;
- the quantity and quality of water detected;
- the depth of the aquifer;
- location of quicksand, boulders and slabs;
- the approximate amount that we need to build a well.
It’s not at all the fact that the place you are scouting will be conveniently located relative to the proposed buildings on your site, but sometimes the owners are lucky.
Finding the desired aquifer in close proximity to your home is considered a great success. In this case, you will be provided with clean drinking water, and your garden - with regular watering.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Watch the video below, he will introduce you to biolocation methods.
You will see the practical application of the biolocation method. Geologists do not recommend using this method, considering it pseudoscientific. If the method itself is controversial, then the ring manipulations that you see in this video are more than doubtful.
In our article, biolocation is mentioned solely in order to provide the most complete information about all the methods of water search that are actually used in practice.
The following video will present the principle of the study of soils and their state by drilling methods.
This video clearly shows the work on intelligence digging with a stylus (zhelonka). This is a fairly time-consuming process that is difficult to perform alone, without using either a tripod or a gate.
In addition, there is a real risk of wellbore collapse if you do not use a casing to fix it.
If you are looking for water for a well, you need to be aware of the aquifers, how they are located underground, and the effect of the depth of water on its quality characteristics. Be observant during the search.. Follow the plants, natural phenomena and animals. Their behavior will help you determine if there is water in your area.
Not redundant will be the folk water search tools, as well as information received from neighbors. In addition, water is sought and the method of biolocation. The drilling method is considered to be the most effective, although time consuming. Armed with the information you receive, you can start searching. If there is water on your site, you will definitely find it.