How and what to make walls for wiring: instructions for construction work
When overhauling or refurbishing a new builder, all craftsmen are faced with the need to supply communications, but even in everyday life there may be a need to install new sockets or switches.
And the best way to hide the wires is to wall them into the walls, so it will be useful to study in detail how to make walls for the wiring and what tools to use.
Requirements and standards for strob
Before choosing a tool and getting to work, it is necessary to make a drawing of a new layout, taking into account building codes (requirements are regulated by SNiP 3.05.06-85).
On the scheme you need to specify the location of all lighting fixtures, junction boxes, sockets, switches and the route through which the connecting wires will pass.
- The depth of the furrows should not exceed 2.5 cm, and the width - 3 cm.
- The maximum length of one channel from the junction box to the switch or device is 3 meters.
- Wires and, accordingly, the road bars under them can be conducted only vertically and horizontally, by verifying the level of parallelism with the main structures of the building. But to reduce the distance "directly" using oblique and especially wavy lines - it is impossible. The exception to this rule can only be wiring in the attic room - in this case, the grooves are punched parallel to the lines of inclination of the walls.
- The minimum distance from the floor slabs to the horizontal strobes must be at least 15 cm, and from the heat and gas routes - at least 40 cm.
- Vertical wiring should take place at a distance of 10 cm or more from the door and window openings.
- It is important to plan the wiring so that the wires have as few bends as possible on the way from junction boxes to lighting fixtures or outlets. Ideally, you need to lead the way in a straight line from the box or use no more than one transition at a right angle.
- It is impossible to stitched on the bearing walls, floor slabs and corners - this can weaken the strength of the structures of the entire building and lead to an accident.
If you complete the drawing and the subsequent breaking in compliance with these rules, hidden wiring will work without problems and failures.
Choosing a tool for chroming walls
To conduct the recess grooves easier and faster with the help of special electrical equipment. But even if you have only a minimum set of home tools at your disposal, do not rush to give up the intention to do the work yourself. We will tell in detail what can make walls for wiring, consider options from “grandfather's” methods to professional ways.
What is suitable from the arsenal of the home master
The simplest toolkit that will almost certainly be found in the stocks of any home craftsman is a chisel (chisel) and a hammer. Set the chisel with a sharp edge to the drawn markup, hit it with a hammer in order to penetrate deeper into the wall. Smoother lines are obtained if you additionally use a hacksaw - it makes saws along the length of the grooves, which slightly eases and speeds up the process.
But in any case, it will be the most time-consuming and long-term production option for gateways under wiring.
This method is good because it does not require expensive equipment and special skills to work with it. Therefore, it is still successfully used for arranging short grooves on walls made of pliable material, for example, if it became necessary to extend the existing route to connect one or more new devices.
But if it is concrete or brick walls indoors, it is better to refuse the intention to make the grooves with a hammer and chisel, and to use more efficient shaving methods.
A simple power tool to help manual labor.
The usual electric drill will help to improve the speed and productivity of manual shaving. But there may be problems with concrete walls - the drills will “burn”, therefore we will consider several important nuances and the principle of the job.
We need to act according to the following scheme:
- To draw a marking on surfaces of walls.
- To pick up for a drill pobeditovy a drill with a diameter of 8-10 mm.
- Make a “point path” - drill holes along the lines of the required depth at intervals of about 0.5-1 cm. Keep the tool perpendicular to the wall so that the drill does not flex or break. If you need a wide groove - make holes in a checkerboard pattern.
- When working with concrete or brick, you need to turn on the drill at low speed and periodically stop to cool the drill in cold water (just make sure that the liquid does not penetrate into the device).
- Then, using a hammer and chisel left to knock out the gaps.
Although the technology is rather primitive, it justifies itself when conducting shtrob on small and medium distances. For example, when wiring in the same room, a tandem drill and chisel will significantly save on construction services or purchase expensive equipment.
But for a thorough redesign of wiring throughoutbuilding or multi-room apartment is better to acquire a specialized tool or invite the master electrician.
Professional equipment for quick installation
You can make the strokes with a minimum of effort, using a special wall chaser. Two diamond-coated disks can be mounted on this tool at once, due to which neat and perfectly even grooves are obtained on any surface in a single pass. In this case, the circles themselves will be closed by a casing, on which there is a tap for connecting a vacuum cleaner, to prevent the spread of dust throughout the apartment.
In addition, the wall chaser design allows you to independently change the distance between the circles and set the desired width and depth of the groove. In short, this is an excellent solution with the only drawback - the price of equipment is quite high, so it would be cheaper to invite a hired master than to buy a wall chaser for a one-time repair.
Quickly perform shtroblenie walls under wiring will help:
- Hammer drill or hammer drillwith interchangeable nozzles. Both devices work according to the same principle: first, short holes are drilled at intervals of 1-1.5 cm. Then the nozzle is changed to a pointed “chisel” or “paddle”, set at an angle of 45 degrees to the wall, the device switches to “without drilling ”and cleans the groove of the remaining material. This method is good for its speed, but not quality - the groove still turns out to be sloppy, with ragged edges, cracks and chips.
- Bulgarian(angle grinder) - if you equip the device with a sintered diamond or turbo-diamond disc, it will perfectly cope with the implementation of even strobe. True, the work will be quite dusty and exacting to accuracy - according to the markup, you need to cut through 2 parallel lines in 2 passes, maintaining the gap to the width of the future channel. Then the material is knocked out inside the grooves by a perforator with a paddle or another percussion instrument.
The grooves with the grinder are almost as smooth and neat as when using a wall chaser, but the cutting process is accompanied by such a huge amount of dust (especially if the walls are made of concrete or aerated concrete) that it is simply impossible to work without a respirator.
To remove at least part of this “cloud”, you can use a construction or industrial vacuum cleaner: while one person performs shaving, the second must hold the suction hose close to the cutting line.
All items that can not be taken out of the room at the time of the Bulgarian, should be covered with foil to avoid penetration of small debris. Reducing the amount of dust will also help wetting the wall with water, but here it is important not to overdo it, since working with wet concrete or brick will not be easy.
Features of working with different materials
With the right scheme and the right tools, it is easy for even a novice in the construction business to perform wall shading. But this is the case if the wall is not load-bearing and is covered with a thick layer of pliable plaster.
And what if the internal partitions are made of high-strength concrete, lightweight aerated concrete or even wood? Consider the nuances of working with different materials.
Concrete and brick strokes
On masonry, bonded with a mixture of sand and cement, you can even hollow out horizontal grooves with a chisel and a hammer, if you “get into” the seam. For vertical gates, it would be better to use a power tool such as a grinder, hammer drill, or wall chaser. If the masonry is covered with plaster, it is possible to cope with primitive manual equipment, however, the process will take a lot of time.
In principle, there is nothing difficult in working with concrete - although the material is strong enough, the grooves on it can be made with any tool suitable for shaving, with the exception, perhaps, of a hammer and chisel. But the punch will be the best choice, although the flatness of its grooves leaves much to be desired (however, all the nuances will be corrected by the plaster).
This percussion instrument has high power, so it can cope with any hard surfaces.It does not form such a large dust cloud, as a Bulgarian, and does not require additional tools to clean the remnants of the material inside the furrow. In addition, it is not safe to use a grinder (and its counterparts - a circular saw, angle grinder) on concrete walls of increased strength - a circle can break if it is pressed hard.
How to work with wood and aerated concrete
Make grooves in the walls of aerated concrete or foam blocks can be using grinders, drills, perforators or circular saws. But if you want to minimize the amount of dust - use a special manual wall chaser designed to work with a ductile material. Its pointed arc easily cuts through a neat groove, and the required depth can be achieved in just 3-4 passes.
By the way, it is easy to make such a tool with your own hands from a plate sharpened on one side or a hard punched tape. To do this, you need to bend the arc with a small segment of the material at hand and fix the edges with wire or tape. For small volumes of such a device is quite enough, but if you need to hold a network of channels with a total length of more than 20 meters, you should equip the device with a convenient handle from a pipe.
What walls swing from a profiled bar or a rounded log, then, according to the fire safety rules, the installation of open electrical wiring is recommended here, so that in case of force majeure you can quickly neutralize the source of ignition.
In extreme cases, for wooden walls, you can use a special router, a grinder with a circular disc on wood and a chisel, with which you can remove the material remaining between the sawing. But, we repeat, it is better not to risk disguising the wires and to perform installation without violating the standards of the electrical installation code and the integrity of the wooden coating.
As already mentioned, it is forbidden to chisel the supporting structures - if the top layer in the wall is damaged, the armature is exposed, as a result of which corrosion can begin, which will weaken the entire frame of the building. But how to be the owners of apartments in the house, where part of the partitions are made of reinforced concrete or most of the walls - bearing?
There are several options here:
- Formal approval - obtain approval for construction work at the local construction department. You can try if you prove that the depth of the grooves will not affect or damage the reinforcing mesh, the deformation of which leads to the weakening of the supporting structures. But if we are talking about a panel house - the chances are almost zero, but for the frame-brick building the permission will most likely be given.
- Apply a thick layer of plaster to the wall and carry out the chipping, without going into the very structure of the slab. Typically, the reinforcement lies under the 1.5-2 cm layer of concrete, so if you level the wall with plaster mix, the depth of the grooves will not affect the metal.
And the last way to help solve the problem with any problematic wall is to hide the wires behind the drywall or in special electrical plinths.
Step-by-step description of the shaving process
First you need to make a diagram with a detailed indication of all elements of the electrohighway. Those who are friends with a computer can use special programs, for example, Compass Electric, ProfiCAD, QElectroTech or other graphic editors.
Step-by-step process of wall chipping through wiring:
- If possible, protect the room from debris - close the doorway with a damp cloth, remove furniture and appliances, or seal it tightly.
- If there are wallpapers on the walls, they must be removed so that pieces of paper are not stuck in the power tool.
- Then we transfer the wiring diagram to the walls using a pre-designed drawing, a marker and a building level.
- We check the marked area with an indicator or a metal detector for the presence of old wiring - if it is found, it will be necessary to dismantle or indent at least 10 cm. Ideally, the apartment should be completely de-energized and stretch the wire to the neighbors, because if you accidentally stumble upon a cable that was missed during inspection under stress, you can get a serious injury.
- Now you can make pens using protective equipment and any convenient tool suitable for the wall material.
- When the entire course is completed, the grooves need to be cleaned of residual material and dust, then treated with a deep penetration primer.
- When the impregnation is dry, you can mount the wiring.
Take into account that the grooves are different, because the grooves are designed not only for the cables themselves, but also for the masking of podrozetniki, switches and junction boxes. Usually, the boxes themselves are placed immediately under the ceiling (in the place where the main electric highway passes), and the sockets are indented 30 cm from the floor level. And they will need to make a deepening in the shape of a circle.
Of course, it is possible to hollow out such shafts manually, having marked a line with a drill or chisel, but it is much more convenient and quicker to do this with the help of a perforator and a “crown” of a suitable diameter. The same nozzle can be made and deepening for switches.
How to disguise the pins with wiring
Work on the implementation of hidden channels is usually performed before applying the plaster in order to level the entire surface of the wall for the application of the final coating after wiring communications.But if the wiring is replaced after the rough finish of the walls, you need to act carefully so that holding the strobe does not turn the point repair into a major one.
The easiest channel processing option is gypsum plaster. Apply it after the grooves have been cleared of dust and primed, and all the wires are installed according to the plan-scheme. To reduce shrinkage, it is recommended to moisten the wall at the gates with water. Then you need to prepare a thick solution of gypsum plaster mix and using a spatula / spatula to fill the channel.
To prevent the plaster layer from collapsing with time and not subsiding, you can use a special mesh for reinforcement. Then smooth the mixture perpendicular to the groove (processing the vertical groove from bottom to top) and remove excess mortar with a smoothing trough.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
For a better understanding of wall churning, we suggest looking at the work of masters with various tools and learning practical tips about the numerous nuances that may arise during the wiring process.
If you are not sure what tool to choose for the gate, we suggest you study the master class with a comparison of the work of the puncher, grinder and wall chaser:
Despite the noisiness, the perforator remains one of the most sought-after construction tools for making strobes. More about the principles of working with this tool - in the following video:
The Bulgarian is an excellent device for creating smooth channels. And to minimize the amount of dust will help install a protective cover with dust extraction:
How to make a manual wall chaser to work with gas and foam blocks:
If the examples provided do not inspire you to self-shake the walls, you can always call the master with professional equipment so that he can make a network of channels and spread wires through them.