Gothic ornament in architecture and interior
Gothic style appeared in France in the XII century. He emerged on the basis of the Romanesque style, which used the principle of clarity and transparency, the desire for constructive openness. Buildings and houses in Gothic become delicate, here the principle of uniformity of forms is applied, and in order to achieve diversity, numerous repetitions of elements, of different proportions, but similar in type, were used. Such elements created a sense of delicate lace.
Gothic style in the interior
For the interior in the Gothic style are characteristicLarge windows, all sorts of lighting effects, multicolored stained glass and the underlined verticality of all the elements of the design. The inherent features of this style are aspiration upward, irrationalism, lightness, mysticism and expressiveness. Specific stylistic orientation of the interior is given by a gothic ornament and the use of stained glass in the traditional Gothic palette of colors and shades. In this case, the stained glass can be used not only in the windows, but also on the deaf walls. As a complementary element of the interior in the Gothic style will look great tile stove or luxuriously decorated fireplace. Ornament in the Gothic style - is basically all sorts of elements of the plant world, usually in the form of leaves of maple and grapes and the geometric shape of the arch.
The color scale in which the ornament is maintained
Gothic style can be described asdark and cold, even bleak. It is characterized by ruby, purple, red, yellow, green, blue and blue color, as well as pink-pink tones and silvery, golden threads. Such shades give the interior a Gothic style of mystery and gloom. If we talk about materials characteristic of Gothic, then these are different types of colored wood - walnut, oak, spruce, European cedar, larch, juniper. In addition, this style is inherent in wood carving, ceramics, stone and bones, metal and glassware, which adorns a gothic ornament or enamel painting.
Gothic in its essence is not easyonly in color, but also in furniture. Typically, in the interior there are all sorts of bookshelves, screens, large bookcases with carvings, repeating the gothic ornament on the windows in the form of arcades, high double-winged cabinets, chests with cast-iron rivets and cupboards on high legs.
Features of the ornament in the Gothic style
Since its inception, Gothicthe ornament was symbolic and diverse. And now the transformation of Byzantine and ancient motifs continues to be used here, but new and more modern themes also appear. Weave curvilinear geometric forms are replaced by rectilinear. In addition to widespread ornamental geometric constructions and the creation of spherical triangles and quadrangles and arched arches, vegetative forms of local nature are widely used that characterize the specificity of the ornamentation of that era - leaves of roses, clover, ivy, oak, grapes and so on. A special place in the architecture of Gothic takes a relief Gothic ornament, executed on a stone.
Gothic architecture as art developedalong with sculpture. In sculptural ornamentation, the stylized motifs of palmettes and acanthus are used less often, giving way to other forms of plant life. Vegetative motifs of the early Gothic period from the buds of shoots in the ornament of the 13th century. turn into a blossoming foliage and lush bouquets of flowers and fruits in the XIV century.
Ornamental motifs of Gothic art
Elements of Gothic architecture are traditionallydecorated with images of human heads, centaurs, separate episodes from the Bible in the form of figures, historical characters, leaves of roses and grapes. For example, the architecture of the Notre Dame Cathedral, in which the gargoyles portrayed grotesque winged monsters. Gothic ornament in furniture was often used in the form of thin plexus, reminiscent of the ribs of the vaults in combination with a deciduous pattern. At the end of the XV century. the ornament of "linen folds" was distributed. In addition, the furniture also reproduces a sculptural stone frieze made of wood in the form of tightly woven, twisted leaves and twigs.
Ornamental tiles in the Gothic style
In the Gothic era, the floors were tiled with tilesceramics, decorated with ornaments. Basically, this tile had a square, but sometimes rectangular, hexagonal shape. The combination of pattern lines of individual tiles created a common ornament of the surface. The tiles were mostly carpeted by the type of parquet laying - ribbons, but sometimes a more complicated configuration was used, for example in the church. Tiles were decorated with various motifs - plant, geometric, anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and so on. The most common ornament is a combination of plant shoots and palmets. The traditional forms of gothic ornament include the lily on the high stem, which can be depicted as a separate flower or in the form of four buds connected together.