Endocrine system - what is it?
Everyone knows that every person hasendocrine system. What it is? The endocrine system is a collection of some organs of man (or animals) that produce the necessary hormones for the body. An important feature of the endocrine system is that it monitors the work of almost all organs, supporting and adapting the human body to changing conditions.
The endocrine system (endocrine glands) performs the following functions:
- controls the work of all human organs and systems;
- adapts the human body to changing conditions;
- regulates the development, growth of the body;
- helps maintain and correctly use the energy of the body;
- provides reproductive function of the body;
- helps to differentiate sex differences;
- supports the mental and emotional organization of a person.
Endocrine system of man
So what is the endocrine system? Biology, dealing with the structure and functioning of animal organisms, in the human endocrine system identifies the glandular and diffuse apparatus. The glandular apparatus produces peptide and steroid hormones, as well as hormones of the thyroid gland. The endocrine substances of the glandular apparatus are produced within one organ, discharged into the lymph or blood.
Anatomico-physiological features of the endocrine system of the glandular apparatus are represented by the following organs:
- Hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These organs are located in the cranium of a person and perform accumulative and monitoring functions. In particular, the pituitary gland functions as the main controlling organ, which regulates the work of all other organs of the endocrine system.
- Thyroid. Located in the anterior part of the human neck, the thyroid gland is responsible for the production of iodine-containing hormones, which are necessary for the regulation of metabolism and body growth. Follicles that make up the gland contain thyroxine hormones, triiodothyronine and calcitonin.
- Parathyroid glands. This gland, located near the thyroid, performs the nerve and motor functions of the body by regulating the level of calcium in the body.
- Pancreas. Located in the abdominal cavity between the duodenum and spleen, this gland produces pancreatic juice, as well as hormones such as glucagon, insulin and ghrelin (the hormone of hunger).
- The adrenal glands. Located on top of the kidneys, these glands regulate the synthesis of carbohydrates, the breakdown of proteins, and also produce adrenaline.
- The gonads. These are male testes and female ovaries, which produce male (androgyne) and female (estrogen) hormones.
- Epiphysis. Located in the skull, this organ produces melatonin (affects the order of the phases of sleep) and noradrenaline (affects blood circulation and the nervous system).
- Thymus. Located between the lungs, this thymus gland produces hormones that regulate the development and maturation of cells in the immune system.
Thus, this is the main endocrine system. The anatomy of the diffuse endocrine system is scattered throughout the body, since its hormones are found in virtually any tissue of the body. The main organs that will be included in the list of a diffuse endocrine apparatus are the liver, kidneys, stomach, intestine and spleen.
Often patients have pathologyendocrine system, expressed in hypofunction, dysfunction or hyperfunction of the glands of internal secretion. These pathologies can be manifested in the following diseases:
- diabetes and overweight (pancreas disease);
- hypercalcemia, parathyroid osteodystrophy (parathyroid disease);
- diseases of the immune system (thymus gland disease);
- thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cancer, cretinism (thyroid disease);
- benign and malignant tumors (apudoma, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, somatostatinoma);
- hypertension, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases (adrenal diseases);
- myoma, infertility, mastopathy, endometriosis, cystosis, ovarian cancer (gonadal disease).
Endocrine system of children and animals
The endocrine system in children determines the growth anddevelopment, and also involved in the neurohumoral regulation of the body. Physiologically, the endocrine system in children is represented by the same organs as in an adult, but with the difference that the functioning of the glands does not work at full capacity. So the system of the sexual glands up to a certain point allocates only a small part of the hormones, and in the adolescence, on the contrary, their production is explosive. Any deviation in the functioning of the organs of the endocrine system should be investigated and treated, as the consequences can be disastrous for the whole organism as a whole and affect the further life.
The endocrine system of animals is representeda different set of endocrine glands, depending on which class of fauna they belong to. So in insects, the endocrine glands already control the metabolism, as well as sexual maturation, growth and behavior of the organism. In vertebrate animals, endocrine organs participate in ion balance, metabolism, immunity and healing of wounds. An important role in the life of animals is played by sex hormones, which are aimed at producing estrogen, progesterone and testosterone, responsible for the reproduction of offspring.