Wiring in a wooden house: design rules + step-by-step installation
Wooden houses are chosen as housing for many reasons: one is contraindicated to live in concrete “boxes”, others like beautiful, environmentally friendly log houses from natural raw materials.
However, comfortable living is directly related to the concept of security - that is why electrical wiring in a wooden house is considered one of the key aspects.
Even if all logs, bars and boards are treated with fire retardants, they remain vulnerable to accidental ignition.
For this reason, the stages of the electrical system - from design to installation of sockets and switches - need to know and skillful "DIY", and the owners who control the work of invited experts.
The project of power supply of a wooden house
According to the legislation of Russia, for residential buildings with a power consumption of not more than 15 kW, the drafting of power grids is not required.
But the company supplying electricity, you must provide a diagram and data on the total power consumption. This is necessary for the calculations of the allocated power on the line and the installation of the metering device.
In the process of project development, it is necessary to take into account all the nuances: the exact location of electrical installations, the choice of cables and the method of wiring, the need for grounding, etc. How is the design and preparation for installation work going on, let us consider in more detail.
Step # 1 - drawing up the scheme and work plan
Designing can be done independently, if you have experience of similar work, or with the help of specialists, having entered into an agreement with the project organization.
Professionally written document contains the following points:
- switchboard circuit;
- electrical installation plan;
- calculations for installing a ground loop;
- conclusions outside the house, if any - autonomous sources of electricity;
- equipment installation plan with specifications;
- if approval is needed - a package of permits;
- explanatory note.
But first you should contact Energosbyt for TU - technical specifications, which are painted according to the SNiP.
Least of all the papers will have to collect the owners, making the connection with a capacity of less than 15 kW. They need to write a list of electrical appliances and calculate their total power.
If the power consumption of more than 35 kW - requires a linear scheme of power / supply. For 380 V networks, a three-line circuit is drawn up.
In the kitchen there are not enough 1-2 sockets, as in the bedrooms, be sure to plan the installation of sockets. The height of the mounting sockets is justified only by ease of use.
In the corridors it is rational to use walk-through switches, in the rooms - the usual 2-3 keys. They are set at a height of 90 to 160 cm.
The location of the electrical panel should be planned so that it has easy access, but only for adults - that is, it is better at a height of 150 cm.
All rules relating to the project apply to any houses, not only wooden. But the risk of accidental ignition in the case of improper planning or installation of networks is higher in buildings made of wood.
Step # 2 - Study Wiring Rules and Requirements
If the activities are carried out independently and there are questions about the use of certain materials, as well as technologies for laying cables, you should rely on the norms and rules for connecting electricity in a wooden house, set out in the EMP and SNiP.
For example, one of the requirements is the use of copper wires only, the cross section of which is selected according to the network load.They are more expensive, but have better conductivity and mechanical strength, they serve for a long time and are easy to assemble.
A few more requirements, the fulfillment of which will save a wooden house from trouble:
- To protect against damage, condensation, contact with dust, the cable is placed in metal pipes, metal flexible sleeves or plastic boxes.
- The junction of protective pipes or ducts must be carefully sealed.
- Through the ventilation shafts and ducts lay wiring is prohibited.
- Before buying a cable, it is necessary to correctly calculate its cross section, which should correspond to the current load.
- Only metal pipes are recommended for closed wiring, flexible and self-extinguishing sleeves are not suitable.
- One of the conditions for full protection - well-assembled electrical panel with a set of machines and RCD.
It is also not recommended to save on materials and buy cheap products from unverified manufacturers. If there is no experience in wiring closed wiring, it is better to make it open - there are many ways to safely assemble and decorate.
Step # 3 - preparation of materials and tools
Before making an estimate, it is necessary to determine which tool is useful and how much mounting material you need to purchase. This will help pre-designed diagram with an indication of all electrical installations and cable pulls.
For installation will require both manual and power tools:
- a hammer;
- Screwdriver Set;
- voltage indicator (tester);
- construction knife
A distinctive feature of electrical installation tools is insulated handles. In addition, protective gloves and rubber-soled shoes should be prepared.
Materials are selected, taking into account the load, the method of installation, the subsequent decorative finish. The basis of the power grid will be the following products:
In addition, it is necessary to purchase insulation materials for wiring - metal hoses, ducts, mounting clips, self-tapping screws, aluminum tape for insulation, metal pipes for transition sleeves. Cable recommend buying with a margin of 10-15%.
After drawing up the project, calculations, coordination (if necessary) and preparation of materials, you can start work.
The stages of electrical installation in a wooden house
The process of equipment of electrical networks includes not only the installation of wires, everything is important here: the input of the power cable to the house, the device of the ground loop, the filling of the electrical panel. Some of the difficulties associated with the planning and arrangement of hidden wiring. Any activities should be carried out in accordance with the norms and requirements of SNiP and PUE.
Stage # 1 - supply electricity to the building
Over the past decades, electricity consumption has increased, and with it the requirements for arranging the input of the power line to the house.
There are two ways to enter cables:
- above groundor air, realized with the help of high supports;
- undergroundor trench.
The first method refers to the traditional - power communications are pulled from the power line directly to the house.
To do this, use insulated plastic wire CIP, which is called self-supporting. It does not require the installation of an additional cable and is held at the expense of its own carrying capacity.
The underground method of entering the power line is more modern. Wires are laid in a trench with a depth of 0.8 m and more. The security zone on the surface of the soil is labeled.
Underground wires, additionally insulated and placed in a metal pipe, are maximally protected from moisture, damage and stress.
The wire is inserted into the wooden structure by means of a metal sleeve, which can be made from a piece of thick-walled pipe. The main purpose of the liner is to prevent the contact of the cable and the wooden parts of the house.
Stage # 2 - install the ground loop
There is an old proven grounding method for a private house. Not far from the point of entry of the power cable into the house in the ground, a triangular pit 0.5 m deep is pulled out.
At the corners of the resulting triangle, metal rods are driven in - the pins, the armature, are connected by a thick wire or a corner.
Then from the circuit to the post or wall conduct a metallic conductor, the end of which is attached to the grounding bus in the switchboard. The circuit includes a lightning rod. Underground construction covered with soil.
Stage # 3 - we set up the electrical panel
Electrical board of a wooden house - the "brain" of the power gridon which the work of the system and the safety of residents.
In order for it to function correctly, it is necessary to follow a number of important rules:
- the dimensions of the shield are selected according to the number of RCDs and automata, but with a margin of free places on DIN rails;
- in addition to automata and RCDs, it is necessary to allocate space for the electric meter, grounding and zero tires, connected wires;
- if the shield is located on the street, it is necessary to ensure its protection against precipitation;
- installation height - not less than 1.5 m, so that children or animals do not have access.
The nominal of automata, as well as the wire cross-section, depends on the current load. The parameters of the machine at the input focused on the limit of electricity from the supplier.
It is recommended to use more efficient and replaceable terminals for connecting or connecting wires, twisting is not suitable, and soldering takes a lot of time and requires proven skills.
Stage # 4 - correctly run the wiring
Option 1. Installation of hidden wiring. Before starting installation work, you should decide on the type of wiring. The fact is that without protection it is impossible to fix the cable inside wooden elements: timber, logs, etc.
According toPUE-6, there is the possibility of wiring flush wiring, but using a metal pipe.
Hidden wiring is risky and difficult for independent execution: each wire will have to be placed inside a metal pipe, and the joints of the two pipes must be sealed together.
Firefighters do not recommend using this method, but if it is still important for home owners to disguise the wires under the lining, you should follow the following instructions:
- Prepare shafts in logs / lumber.
- Install junction boxes so that access to them is after finishing work.
- Drill the holes in the walls and partitions and insert the pass-through sleeves with the finished edges into them.
- In the places of fastening of switches and sockets also install metal assembly "glasses".
- Pick up pipes according to diameter so that the wires occupy no more than 40-50% of the internal space.
- The ends of the pipes, as well as the sleeves, should be sanded or secured with plastic rims so that the wires do not bend or break.
- Fasten the pipes to the ceiling or walls with clamps, to metal sleeves using a flaring method.
- Pull the wires according to the scheme inside the pipes
- Connect the wires in the junction boxes, connect them to electrical installations and switchboard.
After that, you can veneer wooden surfaces with clapboard, drywall or other material.
To protect the metal from corrosion, choose galvanized or stainless steel pipes. Plain steel is coated with anti-corrosion paint. If excessive humidity is noticed, the pipes are laid at an angle to drain the condensate.
Option # 2. Installation of open wiring. Open wiring is visible, mounted on top of wooden surfaces, so it should look attractive.
For masking use corrugated pipes, rigid plastic boxes and skirtings made of non-combustible material.
But many do not like the “office” design, and they use retro wiring, specifically designed to create an internal electrical network of a wooden house.
If the budget is small and retro wiring is not affordable, a box made of self-extinguishing plastic will do. You can choose the color that is most suitable for facing the walls: white, brown, beige, “under the tree”.
Electrical installation instructions:
- Choose cable channels and baseboards corresponding to the diameter of the wires.
- Remove the upper part - the lid, and fix the base on the wooden surface with self-tapping screws.
- At junction points, in the corners, install junction boxes for connecting wires.
- Install according to the rules of installation of electrical installations in wooden houses sockets, switches.
- Place the wires in the cable channels.
- Connect to all lines.
- Attach the upper part - cover, snap.
Full protection is considered to be in which the wires are not in contact with the wooden surface anywhere and do not protrude.
Stage # 5 - install switches and sockets
The installation of electrical installations is carried out according to the general rules, with one exception - an insulating non-combustible material, for example, aluminum or asbestos, is additionally placed under each device.
Switches are mounted on the same principle as the sockets.
For a neat installation often use pads and inserts of wood. To reduce the risk, they must be treated with fire retardant - additional protection does not hurt.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Risks of improper installation and recommendations for proper arrangement:
General rules for wiring devices:
Overview of the results of wiring in a log house:
Even knowing the basics of electrical work, do not proceed to the self-wiring in a wooden house without the appropriate education, skills and experience. There are a number of nuances and rules known only to installers with qualifications.