Cottage heating: schemes and nuances of autonomous heating system organization
Heating a cottage is a scrupulous process, the implementation of which must be approached with great responsibility.
Observing some rules and tips you can make a country house the best place to relax, receive dear guests, and even for permanent residence.
Heating system requirements
Regardless of whether the old system is being modernized or designed from scratch in a newly built house, the first thing to start is to familiarize yourself with the regulatory documentation. It describes in detail how the equipment is put into operation, and describes the subtleties and features of its future use.
After spending some time on this, you can be sure that the heating system will last far from one year. From year to year, requirements are adjusted and updated.
But there are some principles that every cottage owner should know. The first thing to be done when installing the heating system is explosion and fire safety.
The list of rules that will help make a private house not only comfortable, but also safe for living should include the following aspects:
- The temperature of the open elements of the heating system should not be higher than recommended by the manufacturer.
- Equipment and all appliances should be properly insulated. This will avoid burns, eliminate the formation of moisture and reduce heat loss. Hot elements can also cause dust, gas or aerosol to ignite in the room.
- When using a coolant, the temperature of the latter must be lower than the temperature of its evaporation or self-ignition by 20 degrees Celsius. For example, if water is used in the system, then it should be prevented from boiling. A great solution would be to increase the pressure.
Operational requirements are also imposed on the heating system.After all, any equipment should be as strong, durable, easy to manage, quiet and convenient for repair.
Choosing a boiler, radiators and pipes that best meet the listed criteria, you can save yourself from many problems.
The main stages of installation
When planning the arrangement of the heating system in a completely new house, then the best solution would be to think through all the nuances at the design stage.
Preparation for drafting
Competently made scheme and the calculations carried out by the expert will allow to solve many problems “in the bud”. For example, such an approach will let you know if you need to allocate a separate room for the boiler room.
Before the start of finishing works, it is recommended to take care of where and how the pipes will be hidden. The best way is to install the heating system before the floor screed.
Experts recommend starting the design and selection of equipment only after the thermal circuit of the house is closed. That is, you need to do this after the doors and windows have been installed and the roof is covered.
In order to simplify the process of installation of the heating system of the cottage, the work is divided into several main stages:
- selection of the type of heating system;
- design and performance of design work;
- order equipment;
- boiler room arrangement;
- installation of radiators;
- carrying out commissioning.
Each of the above steps has its own characteristics. Knowing all the subtleties in this area, any newcomer will cope with the installation at the highest level, and the equipment will surely serve for more than one year.
The choice of the type of coolant
Manufacturers offer a wide range of heating equipment. On the one hand, it allows you to select everything you need to implement the most complex and uncomplicated system.
But because of such a large model range, any unprepared buyer will undoubtedly have a lot of problems.Therefore, before going to the store should be as detailed as possible to deal with this issue.
There are several types of heating systems. So, depending on the heat carrier, it is:
Air equipment, as the name implies, uses air to transfer heat. It is taken outside the building, heated and fed directly to the desired area. The main advantage of such a system is its security.
Its disadvantages are low heat emission, high cost, and in order to carry out the installation, you will have to go deep into the technical literature.
The most simple to use heating system is water. Water, antifreeze or a mixture of them in a certain proportion are used as heat carrier in this equipment. But for simplicity you have to pay (in the literal sense). After all, to move the fluid, you will need to mount the pipeline, put the radiators and the unit to heat it.
Steam plays a major role in arranging steam heating, but it will be necessary to build steam lines and put pipes to collect condensate. And when using a heating furnace, hot gases transfer heat to the room through its walls, passing through the channels.
One of the options is heating without heat carrier. To get the heat you need electricity, and it is transmitted through a solid medium. Autonomous infrared or oil batteries, electric convectors, electrofireplaces or special fans are used.
But for simplicity you have to pay (in the literal sense). After all, such equipment uses a large amount of electricity. And its performance is rather low, which makes it a profitable solution only for rare use in small country houses.
How many contours to equip?
The main difference between a double-circuit boiler is that it heats the water for heating the room and for the DHW system. On the one hand, it is profitable, since the purchase and maintenance of such equipment will be cheaper than the purchase of single-circuit devices and a separate arrangement of the hot water system.
And also with a double-circuit boiler, there is still a choice of the type of heater between flow and storage. Given that the first option is convenient for a family of 2-3 people, and the second will save fuel, but will require space for an additional reservoir for storing hot water.
As for the single-loop system, today it is the best solution for many cottages. She is going to faster and less components will be required.
Type of fuel for the boiler
Boilers for heating systems are divided into categories depending on the type of energy source they use. There is gas, solid fuel and liquid fuel equipment, as well as appliances that run on electricity. Before you make the final choice, it is recommended to evaluate which type will be the most profitable.
It is also worth paying attention to whether the gas pipeline runs near the house, how much solid and liquid fuel is available in the region, and whether there is a problem with the stability of the electricity supply.
The most profitable solution would be to install a gas boiler. But its installation will require some financial investments and time. After all, you have to get the appropriate permission.
And there will be a problem in the allocation of space for the storage of fuel reserves, if instead of the network gas will be used liquefied liquefied gas cylinders.
Design and design work
After the issue related to the type of heating system has been resolved, you can begin to develop the project. If the cottage has sufficiently modest dimensions, then it will be possible to do all the calculations and make the scheme yourself.
But the best solution would be to entrust this work to a highly qualified specialist. The professional will do all the calculations correctly, which will allow you to avoid many problems that may arise during the installation phase.
When developing a scheme of a heating system, the document should indicate:
- place of installation of radiators;
- the way to eliminate combustion products, if any;
- the place where the boiler will be installed;
- a detailed plan for distributing pipelines, where the location of fittings, taps and other elements is precisely indicated.
It is recommended to order design and design work only from verified companies that have permission to provide such services. Often this is done by organizations that work in the field of installation of heating systems or selling the necessary equipment for this.
All calculations can be done independently. For this to be dealt with the drawings, diagrams and detailed description in the reference literature. It will be necessary to get a closer look at the information on the characteristics of the heat generator, the type of wiring, the general network configuration, the location and specification of the equipment, and so on.
Buying the necessary equipment
When the type of boiler was chosen, it should be determined with its capacity, given that the performance of the equipment for the dual-circuit system should be greater, since in this case the heat loss will be much higher.
Properly selected power means that the temperature in the combustion chamber will not exceed 90 degrees Celsius. Following this rule, the equipment will last much longer. For example, for a cottage with an area of 100 m2, the best solution would be equipment with a capacity of up to 15 kW.
The next thing you need to install a heating system is radiators. To choose them correctly, it is necessary to determine the number of these elements and the number of sections.
Their characteristics are completely dependent on the size of living rooms. As for the material, experts recommend to stay on cast iron products or bimetallic models.
The last detail that needs to be paid attention in the store is the pipes. Polymer models are preferred. They are distinguished by simplicity of soldering and low weight, which allows you to do the installation yourself, without the involvement of specialists.
Arrangement of the boiler room in the house
After all the necessary equipment has been ordered and delivered to the site, you can proceed to the installation of the heating system.Being engaged in installation it is important to strictly follow the project documentation, which will avoid problems and unplanned financial expenses.
The installation of the heating device is carried out as specified in the manufacturer's manual. If there is none, then the following basic rules should be followed:
- the front of the boiler should be at least 1 m of free space, and at the back and on the sides - about 70 cm;
- the device must not be installed closer than 70 cm in relation to other devices;
- if two or more boilers are installed, then a distance of about 2 m should be left between them.
If wall equipment was ordered, then more benign requirements are placed on it. For this kind of heating boiler, you only need to leave space, which will be sufficient for convenient access to the device.
Chimney and flue gas discharge
The next stage of installation of the heating system of the cottage is the organization of the chimney. When properly designed chimney there is a risk of a fire in the house or the chance of poisoning of tenants with carbon monoxide gas.
It is recommended to build a structure for removal of combustion products from metal, brick or ceramics. The latter material is the optimal solution in most cases.
Ceramics harmoniously combines low heat transfer and a modular design. The only drawback of this chimney is the high cost. In addition, the design should have a strictly vertical configuration.
As for metal products, they will be the ideal solution for liquid and gas equipment models. After all, such chimneys are resistant to mechanical and chemical effects. The list of advantages also include the ease of installation (the design is assembled from modules).
Brick chimneys are most often used with solid fuel boilers.Their main advantage is low heat emission, but the construction should be done only by a qualified technician.
When designing a chimney, it is important to adhere to the following rules:
- at the end of the design must put a visor. This element will provide protection from moisture and foreign objects;
- the shape of the chimney should be round. In this case, the products of combustion of fuel accumulate less;
- the number of turns of the chimney can not exceed three;
- the construction is set above the flat roof by half a meter, and for the ridge this parameter is 0.5-1.5 m.
If it was decided to install an external chimney, then you must adhere to a certain standard. Experts recommend displaying such a structure upward at a distance of at least half a meter from the roof surface.
Installation of radiators in the house
Installation of radiators requires compliance with certain rules. First of all, they should be installed precisely horizontally, without any distortions. If you are going to a one-pipe heating system, it is desirable to set the radiators on the same level.
To minimize heat loss, the elements should be fixed at a distance of 8-12 cm from the floor and window sill, as well as 3-5 cm from the wall.In addition, the size of the radiator should be at least 3/4 of the window dimensions. This will avoid condensation.
To date, there are two ways to connect radiators: side and bottom. The first option, in turn, is divided into one-sided and diagonal. Also, sometimes experts prefer the saddle method.
Which way is better? When installing a heating system in a newly built cottage, the ideal solution would be a lower connection method.
It allows you to mount pipes in the floor, hiding them under the screed. This will save precious square meters, as well as make the interior of the room more harmonious and neat.
Check and configure the system
After all the heating equipment is connected, you should make sure that the work done is correct.To do this, the system is filled with coolant, after which you need to follow it and check for the absence of leaks.
Then the boiler starts. Heating the fluid will finally make sure that the collection scheme is correct and that there are no violations.
If the error was still made and a leak was found somewhere, then for this you need:
- drain the coolant;
- correct the defect;
The final stage is the termination of the strobe, where the pipes were laid. If the installation was carried out on the floor, then the best solution is screed. In the case when the pipeline is installed on the wall, putty or plaster is used. Next, you can do the finishing work.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1 heating a private house with an area of 300 m2:
Video # 2 heating a large house, which is not connected to the pipeline:
Video # 3 of the subtleties of the arrangement of heating in a private house, which area is 150 m2:
Design, selection and installation of the heating system of a cottage are those processes that require proper attention and responsible attitude. If it was decided to do everything with his own hands, then you will have to plunge into the work and closely follow all the details.
But even when the work was entrusted to professionals, you have to control the whole process. Remember that only in this case, you can organize a high-quality heating system that will make a private house truly warm, cozy and, of course, safe.