Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: a diagram and step-by-step instructions

Intellectual electronics for home use are characterized by devices called motion sensors. A new type of switching devices designed for light sources can show greater functionality compared to traditional designs. For example, connecting a motion sensor for lighting with or without a switch gives the user more than a more comfortable component.

Such an approach to creating a switching circuit seems to be more economical in terms of energy saving. So what are these devices - motion sensors?

Technical definition of the intelligence of motion

Automation steadily and consistently covers the domestic sphere. Manual control of virtually any type of home appliances is surely minimized.The appearance of motion sensors is another confirmation of this.

These devices (as a rule, in a miniature version) are designed and manufactured by different companies in different structural versions. However, the principle of operation of all existing modifications has a common base - the effect of radiation of different types of waves.

Intelligent Motion Sensors
Electronics, endowed with intellectual abilities. These devices are available to recognize the heat rays emitted by the human body. In response to heat flows, the instruments perform certain actions.

The following technologies are currently widely used:

  • acoustic;
  • optical;
  • radio wave.

Based on the practice of application of a technology for the production of a particular type of system, different types of structures become the result of production.

Acoustic Motion Sensor
Acoustic version of the device designed to control movement. Executive mechanics are triggered here not from the signal of heat rays, but from the signal of sound waves

In particular, motion controllers are widely used in various fields of activity:

  • ultrasound;
  • microwave;
  • photoelectric;
  • infrared;
  • tomographic.

In addition, it should be noted one more remarkable detail of the constructional sense.

Division of motion sensors into groups

All existing motion control devices are conventionally divided into three groups:

  1. Active devices.
  2. Passive devices.
  3. Combined devices.

They differ from one another in technological features. Thus, the designs of active devices are usually made according to the scheme of transceiver devices, by which the working signal is emitted and perceived as reflected from objects.

Radio Wave Motion Sensors
Another version of the control device and enable / disable peripheral equipment. This design operates on the principle of radiation and perception of radio waves. This is the so-called motion sensor with a radio channel.

Passive-type constructions usually work according to the scheme of receiving signal waves from the outside world. That is, only the reception technique works here. Combined sensors, respectively, are made taking into account the two marked options.

The lion's share of the entire range of available falls on the infrared sensors, which in terms of design features belong to the category of passive devices.This is the most affordable and cost-effective equipment for domestic use.

The principle of operation of infrared devices

The analysis of thermal radiation is the basis of this type of instrument designed to control the movement of people. To this end, a highly sensitive sensor has been introduced into the design of the device.

The design of the infrared device
Widespread design of infrared action: 1 - housing cover; 2 - multi-element lens system; 3 - coverage limiter; 4 - electronics on touch control; 5 - power supply and base

The element reacts to thermal background radiation (from a person), sends a signal to an electronic comparison circuit, where the response time is determined. The sensitivity of the sensor is enhanced by a special lens mounted on the path of the heat waves.

The designs of modern motion sensors are endowed with multi-element lens systems. This solution makes it possible to cover large areas controlled by sensors. For example, one infrared sensor installed at a height of 4 m from the floor level is capable of controlling movement over an area of ​​20-25 m2.

Motion Sensor Controls
The simplest design of the system is infrared action. Inexpensive to purchase, easy to install, simply customizable device. Three variable resistors are used for tuning.

Each separately taken device is equipped with the adjusting electronic module. With the help of special regulators (variable resistors or similar elements) is set the level of sensitivity and time of action. Setting the level of sensitivity determines the performance of the device in certain light conditions.

And the time setting system sets the time limits for resetting the active action (returning the device to tracking mode). This limit can range from 1 second to 60 minutes.

Dimmer and others
The tuning module of the infrared sensor that allows you to perform flexible adjustment: 1 - setting the sensitivity of the movement of objects; 2 - setting the on time; 3 - regulation of the brightness of the lamps of the light device

There are also motion sensors with a design that supports the dimming function of the light of the lamps. These devices can be adjusted to smoothly change the brightness immediately after the circuit closes, turn on the lighting with some delay.

How to connect the device to the lighting circuit

For motion sensors with automatic lighting control function, the ceiling installation is typical. The devices are designed for mounting according to the scheme of surface mounting. However, at least often, motion control devices are mounted on walls.

Installing the sensor on the wall
Motion sensors wall mounting. This type of equipment does not provide the control of the area of ​​coverage, which ceiling structures provide, but wall devices are also used quite actively.

Traditional installation sites are small areas: residential apartments, offices, ancillary facilities. It should be emphasized that the connection of motion sensors is possible not only for the purpose of switching light devices. With the same devices it is convenient to switch from one mode to another ventilation, heating and other systems.

Connection of devices is allowed in the conditions of a normal environment. Devices can be used only inside the closed premises. Meanwhile, the protection class of these devices complies with EN 60669-2-1.

Recommendations for choosing the installation scheme

The optimal height of the installation of motion control devices is 2.5 m.If such a condition is met, the radius of the zone of sensitivity will be at least 3.5 m. Most of the urban and private residential buildings have premises with such a height.

Maximum device coverage
The maximum possible control parameters that infrared devices possess. Obtained experimentally with the participation in the experiments of devices of different performance

Installation work must be performed by persons with professional skills in working with electrical (electronic) equipment. Production of all assembly operations is permissible only when the power line is de-energized at the installation site.

Circuit solutions for installation can be different depending on user needs. Often used the scheme of connecting lighting devices through a motion sensor, paired with a conventional switch.

Wiring diagram with switch
The wiring diagram of the electrical network, when together with the motion sensor is installed a conventional switch: L, N - electrical network; D1 - infrared motion sensor; L - device of artificial light; B - standard switch

Consider this option step by step installation.

Installing a motion sensor with a switch

The first step of the user is usually the choice of the method of connecting the power cable to the body of the motion sensor. The sensor body must first be opened. Disassemble the case is easy. It is necessary with a slotted screwdriver to pry the edge of the base at the point of the latch.

There are two options for cable supply - input from the back or side. In any case, it is necessary to remove the temporary plug of the existing inlet. Cable entry through the back of the base is usually used for concealed wiring, the end of which is led through a hole in the ceiling. Side cable is used for external cabling.

Motion Sensor Installation
Preparing the device for installation on the ceiling plate: 1, 4 - front panel; 2, 6, 8 - sensor module; 3 - base; 5 - screwdriver blade; 7 - latch

The second step is to connect the cable conductors to their destination. Destination - terminal points marked on the instrument with the appropriate symbols (L, N, L1). Depending on the device manufacturer and device configuration, the designations may differ.

Step three involves the installation of a motion sensor - directly fixing the device to the ceiling.There are holes for mounting on the base of the device. Through these holes is mounted.

If the ceiling is concrete, pre-fixing points should be laid out, drilled out, supply with dowels. Having finished mounting to the ceiling, they fasten the cover to the base of the device and wipe the entire structure with a soft cloth.

Fastener and power supply
Elements of connection and fasteners: 1, 6 - the base of the device; 2,3 - fastening screws: 4 - rear water hole; 5 - plug side entry holes

Step four - setting up the device, the essence of which is to set the required values ​​on the service potentiometers. The classic performance of devices is usually accompanied by three service potentiometers:

  1. Delay Time (Time).
  2. Brightness (Lux).
  3. Sensitivity (Meter).

The first potentiometer can set the required parameters for the delay to turn off (that is, after the lamp comes on, it will go out only after a specified time has elapsed).

The second set the mode of illumination (the minimum value for inclusion in total darkness). Three potentiometers set the degree of sensitivity to movement. Usually initially sensitivity is set to minimum.

Tuning potentiometer options
Options for the availability of adjusting elements, depending on the modification of devices. The upper half is used on simple devices with the commutation of one group of external devices. The lower half is complicated constructions with commutation of two groups of external devices

The fifth step of installation is testing the motion sensor. To perform this action, you should use the appropriate function (Test), which is activated by setting the potentiometer (Time) to the test position (Test). By setting the potentiometer at this point, the system is connected to the mains voltage.

After applying current to the line, wait at least 1 minute. This time is necessary for the initialization of the device, its entry into the operating mode. Testing the device can be performed without connecting light fixtures. On / off control is indicated by the LED displayed on the front panel.

Motion Sensor Setup
The scheme of the test setting of motion sensors, which must be applied at the initial stage of launching devices. Thanks to this technique, it is possible to accurately adjust the sensitivity level at any point of the room.

In the test mode of the sensor, it is necessary to activate the movement within the boundaries of the sensitivity zone. If movement is detected by the sensor, the control LED on the front panel should light up for a short time (2-3 seconds). Rotating sensitivity potentiometer (Meter), adjust the desired level.

Similarly or with minor correction, installation and adjustment of any other devices of this class (infrared) is carried out. Some differences can usually be observed in devices designed to connect several load channels. As part of such structures, additional regulators can be installed and the number of terminals per connection can increase.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

This small video guide demonstrates visually how connection operations are carried out for some modifications of devices. It makes sense to look to improve the practice.

Survey video on the use of microwave sensors. These modern modifications are marked by a high level of “flair” and reliable operation as part of intelligent home systems.

Concluding the review, you should add information on the technical requirements for devices such as motion sensors.

Thus, the load capacity of the devices does not usually exceed 1 kW, and the maximum switching current is not more than 10A. The devices are designed to work in AC networks with a frequency of 50-60 Hz at a rated voltage of 230 V. These basic parameters must be remembered before connecting the sensors to solve specific problems.

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