17 century ("Buntashny century") received a verya symbolic name. It began with the Troubles, its middle represents a troubled period of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich. Social movements of this period are characterized by a great intensity and scope, intensity and duration.
In 1645 tsar became Alexei Mikhailovich, who was under the strong influence of his tutor - Boyar Morozov. After the marriage to Maria Miloslavskaya, the new royal relatives came to power, began to take bribes, which led to discontent among the people with the established situation.
Speeches, which became famous "buntashnycentury ", are characterized by an unprecedented hitherto massive, almost reaching the scale of the country. This is the time of the Salt, Plague, Copper riots, urban unrest in Novgorod and Pskov, Solovetsky sitting, raznoshchiny. But, despite the aggressiveness of the rioters, the authorities had no difficulty in crushing the insurrection with the help of partial satisfaction of demands or the use of force.
Urban uprisings swept many populatedpoints of the country due to the fact that the tax burden of traders and artisans became more and more difficult each year, and the treasury was replenished by reducing the salaries of serving people.
The salt riot of 1648 became one of the most powerfulrevolts, which knew the "rebellious century". The financial reform of boyar Morozov, connected with the introduction of a tax on salt, caused a strong dissatisfaction with the landed and archers. The insurrection that flared up in the capital ended with the satisfaction of the demands of its participants: the government replaced the wrangled judges, the archers were paid 8 rubles each, the arrears were no longer subject to "right-hand" (beating of debts by beating).
But after the Moscow uprising a wave roseriots and riots in cities in the south of the country, in Siberia and Pomorze. The most significant were the unrest in 1650 in Novgorod and Pskov. The rebels displaced the governor and transferred power to the city headmen. The unrest in Novgorod was suppressed by government troops, and a delegation from the capital was sent to persuade the Pskovites to grant forgiveness to the rebels in exchange for their consent to stop the speech.
The Buntash Century continued with the Copper Riot inMoscow (1662), which in many respects recalled the events of the times of the Salt Riot. In circulation, depreciating copper money went, and taxes were charged full-fledged silver. Posadsky people and archers, reyts and soldiers of the Moscow garrison presented to the tsar demands and charges of the boyars in power in treason, collusion with the Poles and the ruin of the camp. Streletskie regiments forcefully dispersed the rebels, who appeared to the tsar with the demands of "killing boyars".
"Buntashny century" in Russia is almost no greaterless than urban uprisings, is known for the Razin movement (the turn of the 60s and 70s), to which the status of war was given, although there are still doubts whether there was a peasant or Cossack war. The wars with Sweden and Poland led to the devastation of the population. As a result of the growing discontent of the population on the Don, an army of Cossacks was formed, which sought to overthrow the state system and establish a free government.
"People's Protector" - Don Cossack Stepan Razin- was a man who poured rivers of blood. Violence of the lower classes caused retaliation from the authorities. Razschina originated in the Don, where for a long time settled runaway peasants and representatives of the village, who wanted to become free. In 1667 Stenka "collected the tug from the goat" and "went for a walk to the blue sea" in order to "get the treasuries as much as necessary." The Razin people took the Yaitsk town by cunning and gave up their royal favor in exchange for forgiveness for the riot. Stenka began his Caspian expedition, both robbery and anti-feudal. The flame of rebellion swept the Volga region. Only in 1671 Razin fell into the hands of the government and was executed in Red Square. The main centers of the uprising were suppressed.
"Buntashny century" led to significant changes in the further life of Russia.