Aquaculture is two main directions: freshwater and marine
Modern man is used to controlling nature. His grandiose projects have long been not fiction, but reality. If necessary - can turn the rivers back, disperse the clouds, grow a whole flock of Dolly sheep. And to breed a fish ... Aquaculture is a line of activity that people have mastered at least four thousand years ago. It is a question of the first (from two basic) fresh-water direction. But the second - mariculture (marine) - has been mastered for more than one century.
Shawls full of mullet ...
On his fish "plantations" a person recreatesall conditions that allow breeding and growing aquatic organisms. The process includes a full cycle or only a part of it (depending on the tasks assigned). It is believed that aquaculture is the offspring of China, where already 3,750 years ago, freshwater ponds were created and fish were planted in them.
A little bit about "living silver". It is commodity and non-commodity. As a rule, non-commodity fishes are fed to cattle and poultry. A person uses a canteen (goods). It is known that the Chinese cultivated different types of high-quality "second meat" as early as 1120 BC. Data on the first manual for beginners of aquatic vertebrate animals have been preserved. "Textbook" was written by a certain Fan Li (China) in 599 BC. e.
Useful marine red algae (porphyry),edible bivalve mollusks (oysters), pearls (mollusks, inside which grows a stone), ray-colored yummy (mullet) in the author's home No. 1 were grown half a millennium ago.
In the bays, bays, lagoons
Later fish farming was engaged in Mesopotamia, inThe valley of two great rivers - the Tigris and the Euphrates. Aquaculture is a matter familiar both to the ancient Egyptians, and to the Romans, and to the Greeks, and also to other earthlings. On the Mediterranean coast in times when it belonged to the Roman Empire, the mullet of "its own production" splashed in lagoons filled with brackish water.
Peoples inhabiting countless islandsPacific, as a reservoir for their fish plantations used bays, bays. Pools with farmed sea fish in Hawaii existed in the XV century. Artificial ponds were separated from the sea by ramparts and dams.
It is said that one hundred and fifty-nine such structures "survived" until 1900. It is known that Japanese underwater "agricultural enterprises" produced oysters, algae, scallops from the seventeenth century.
Carp monastery and not only
Russian aquaculture is rooted inthe seventeenth-eighteenth century. Particular attention was attracted at the very beginning by a tenacious, unpretentious carp. The first carp farms emerged at the monasteries, later ponds met on the land of the landowners and, of course, on the state.
Global volumes of fish consumed by peopleproducts are great. Half of it is aquaculture grown by caring hands of a person. The surge in the development of the industry falls on the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), about four hundred and fifty species and subspecies of fish are cultivated, including crustaceans, mollusks, algae, and other aquatic organisms of high nutritional value.
Catch up and overtake
For many years, the undisputed leader of the assortmentThe line of aquaculture is fish from freshwater reservoirs. Behind it go mollusks, crustaceans, transitional (diadromous) fish and, finally, various marine "sisters" and other aquatic animals.
Aquaculture is also a rich species level. If you analyze it, it turns out that most of all it is grown white carp. Second place in the white Cupid, the third is held by carp. Among invertebrates in mariculture, the most popular among consumers are bivalve mollusks, especially oysters. As for crustaceans, here the indisputable primacy of white shrimp, followed by the brindle and Chinese man-eating crab.
Each fishing power determines for itselfa percentage of commodity cultivation of aquatic biological resources, but all of them are among the leaders of this sector among other countries. The exception is Peru and Russia. Russian aquaculture is at the initial stage of development. For a long time, she was not given proper attention.
Outside the Exclusive Zone
China, about which we spoke at the very beginning,grows 70 percent of seafood and freshwater fish. Such a high level of development of the industry in several countries is due to a number of reasons. In particular, in the 1980s, a "novelty" appeared in international law about a maritime region that was outside the territorial seas and adjacent to it (up to 200 miles).
This expanse became the territory of a special legalregime (exclusive economic zone). It became clear: "living silver", growing on free river and sea open spaces, is exhaustible. A different matter is aquaculture, the biological resources of which can be restored on a regular basis.
The latest developments were made in timethe field of technologies for industrial cultivation of valuable fish species, algae, mollusks (commercial objects). The correct calculation quickly led to success: as is known, the cost of one ton of artificially produced fish products is lower than the cost of meat, while water plantations are more productive than fields (farmland).
As is known, the population of the Earth is increasing, andhence, the food problem is only exacerbated. Water economies have shown themselves as having a bright future, providing thousands of people with precious jobs. For countries such as China, India, Vietnam, Japan, Thailand, etc., where the population density is high and employment is low, it is a real salvation. They became the leaders in the development of aquaculture.
Already in the eighties of the last century in Japan insea commodity farms worked three hundred thousand people, producing a million tons of fish per year. In China, two hundred thousand people were employed in the water field, who grew eight hundred tons of valuable products.
According to the degree of equipment of the economy on commoditythe cultivation of organisms adapted to dwelling in water (hydrobionts), are different. In Norway, the UK, Finland and other developed countries in Europe, the level of automation of work processes is high. Manual labor is prevalent in Asian countries.
Whatever it was, aquatic biological resources andAquaculture allows you to stay afloat eight percent of the world's population - industry workers and dependents - members of their families. Taking into account the importance of the development of the direction, it can be concluded that in the coming years the development of aquaculture will continue.