Amaryllis: care and cultivation at home
Experts and amateur flower growers recognize that amaryllis is a suitable option for decorating the home. Care at home for him is not particularly difficult.
The majority of Amaryllis spread in our country is a hybrid of its ancestor from South Africa and gippeastrum. Amaryllis differs from the hippeastrum itself by its smaller flowers and dense peduncle.
Each bulb of the plant annually produces one or two bare peduncles, reaching 50-60 cm. The inflorescences include several flowers (from 2 to 12) of the most different colors: snow-white, pink or saturated purple. Funnel-shaped flowers are rather large (about 20 cm in diameter), with six petals, pointed at the tips. Amaryllis blooms usually in late summer, late winter or early spring.
Amaryllis is a bulbous plant with spectacular large flowers of various colors. Under natural conditions, it grows in South Africa, but there its flowers are smaller in size and do not smell, and “our” also has an amazing aroma.
If you properly care for the plant, there will be no questions why it does not bloom or get sick. The flowering of amaryllis, for the sake of which it is grown, is not a problem for experienced flower growers. The main thing in the care of many onion plants is to give them a period of rest in a timely manner, otherwise the bulb will quickly become depleted.
Activity and rest
For the full development of the flower, it is important to alternate the period of activity and the period of rest. If flowering is completed, it is necessary to remove the pot with the bulb in a dark place where the temperature will not exceed 10 ° C. Pruning leaves are not cut so that the remaining organic matter is transferred to the bulb.
Typically, the rest period lasts three months, after which the plant is again brought to a warm place (air temperature is about 20 ° C). With proper care, the plant is activated, again gives flower stalks and leaves.
Amaryllis is valuable because flowering can come at the right time, if you correctly adjust the rest period.
During the rest period, the flower should be without watering. When the arrows start making their way out of the bulb, you can rearrange the plant to its usual place.Until the arrow stretches to 10 cm, it is not necessary to water the plant, otherwise all the forces will go to the pasture of new leaves, and not to bloom.
When the arrows become long, you can water the plant with warm water, but water should not get onto the bulb itself. When Amaryllis blooms, the ground should be wet and not dry, but the stagnation of moisture is destructive. One of the reasons why the leaves become sluggish and dull, is just an excess of moisture.
During the growing season, the air temperature should be between 17-23 ° C, and during the rest period, the flower pot should be left at about 10 ° C.
Ideally, for amaryllis, when it blooms, a bright diffused light fits. To ensure these conditions, it is best to locate the plant pot in a southwest or southeast window. You can leave the plant on the southern windows, but during the day you will have to provide him with a shade.
Exposure to direct sunlight on the plant becomes the reason why the color of the leaves and the flowers themselves tarnish.
Periodically, the pot should be rotated so that the peduncle does not slope in one direction. At the end of flowering the plant must be put in a dark place.
As a substrate for growing amaryllis consider a mixture of turf, leaf soil, sand, humus and peat in equal proportions. In specialized stores you can buy land suitable for bulbous plants. The bulb in the ground should not be fully recessed. Ground it powdered in half or 2/3.
For amaryllis to feel great before and after flowering, you need to feed it. During flowering, it is fed every 10-14 days with fertilizer intended for any indoor flowering plants. Begin feeding after the buds bloom, and finish after flowering, when the leaves begin to fade.
Annual amaryllis transplant is not needed. Every year after the dormant period, it is worth changing the top layer of soil, doing it carefully, so as not to touch the root system and keep the same level of ground in the pot. A full transplant is performed every 3-4 years.
It is possible to transplant a plant only after flowering, when the arrow dries completely.
Pre-worth plenty to water the flower to make it easier to work.During transplantation you need to inspect the roots, getting rid of old or rotten.
For the bulb, you need to pick up a small pot, which is only 4-5 cm in diameter larger than the diameter of the bulb itself. Drainage is laid on the bottom of the pot (broken brick, crushed stone, expanded clay) with a height of 1-3 cm. Then a layer of sand is made so that the roots do not rot, after which the suitable substrate is covered.
There are two breeding options for amaryllis:
It is easier to separate the children from the uterine bulb, which is carried out during transplantation. First, dry flakes are removed from the bulb, and then the children are separated. The diameter of the pot for new bulbs should be slightly larger than usual so that the baby bulb can grow. For children, the rest period is not needed, because they do not bloom, so they are watered and fed constantly. Flowering occurs three years after the separation of the children.
The second method - seed multiplication - is more complicated. First, it is necessary to pollinate the pistil with pollen, which is transferred from the stamens with a brush. On the spike with proper pollination appears a box with seeds that ripen in a month.They are planted immediately into the ground and watered abundantly. Shoots should appear in a month. With an increase in seedling size, they are seated in separate pots. Flowering earlier than 5-6 years will not come.
Like other indoor plants, amaryllis is characterized by certain developmental problems and diseases, which can be judged by external signs:
- The appearance of red spots or streaks indicates a fungal infection. The reason why such a problem arises is improper watering when water falls on the plant itself. Treatment involves the use of special medicines, including HOM, the Bordeaux mixture, and foundation.
- If flowers darken or turn black, amaryllis is too cold or too humid. The pot should be moved to a more suitable place.
- When leaves begin to fade, an urgent change is needed from too moist soil to avoid rotting.
- If the petals become pale, you need to rearrange the plant in the shade so that direct sunlight does not harm it.
- Also, diseases can be associated with the activity of pests: aphids or thrips.To get rid of uninvited guests, you can wash the plant or wipe the affected areas with a solution of soap and alcohol.